Long-term protection after hepatitis B vaccination in people living with HIV

Vaccine
Volume 35, Issue 33, Pages 4057-4294 (24 July 2017)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0264410X/35/33?sdc=1

Long-term protection after hepatitis B vaccination in people living with HIV
Original Research Article
Pages 4155-4161
Amanda Nazareth Lara, Ana Marli Sartori, Marise Oliveira Fonseca, Marta Heloísa Lopes
Abstract
Background
Hepatitis B vaccine is important in people living with HIV (PLHIV) since both viruses have the same transmission routes and co-infection has greater morbidity.
PLHIV usually have poor response to hepatitis B vaccine. The duration of immunity in PLHIV is unknown.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the duration of serological response and clinical protection provided by hepatitis B vaccination in PLHIV.
Methods
Retrospective study of a PLHIV cohort primarily vaccinated for hepatitis B virus (HBV) from 2001 to 2002. Markers of infection and protection from HBV were investigated in those individuals who were still attending the outpatient clinic, in São Paulo, Brazil from 2012 to 2014. Three groups were analyzed. Group 1: adults who responded to primary vaccine series. Group 2: non-responders to primary vaccine series. Group 3: subjects from both Groups 1 and 2 who did not receive any booster doses after seroconversion.
Results
A cohort of 121 PLHIV was analyzed for seroconversion and persistence of anti-HBs. The majority were female (54.5%) and mean age was 50.1 years.
After 11 years, none of the patients had serologic evidence of HBV infection.
Overall, 41/58 (70.7%) of the initial responders (Group 1) had maintained anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/mL. Greater CD4+ values and anti-HBs > 100 mIU/mL at the time of first vaccine series were associated with persistence of anti-HBs.
During the time of evaluation, 35/63 (55.6%) of the initial non-responders (Group 2) successfully seroconverted (anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/mL) in response to one or more booster doses.
From the time of their seroconversion, 70 of the patients did not receive any further booster doses (Group 3). After 10 years, 54/70 (77.1%) of these individuals has maintained anti-HBs ≥ 10 mIU/mL.
Conclusions
Evaluation of long-term immunity for hepatitis B in PLHIV following vaccination showed a strong persistence of anti-HBs and no serologic evidence of HBV infection. Boosters may be effective in PLHIV non-responders to primary vaccination