Shift within age-groups of mumps incidence, hospitalizations and severe complications in a highly vaccinated population. Spain, 1998–2014

Vaccine
Volume 35, Issue 34, Pages 4295-4450 (3 August 2017)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0264410X/35/34?sdc=1
Short communication

Shift within age-groups of mumps incidence, hospitalizations and severe complications in a highly vaccinated population. Spain, 1998–2014
Original Research Article
Pages 4339-4345
Noemí López-Perea, Josefa Masa-Calles, María de Viarce Torres de Mier, Aurora Fernández-García, Juan E. Echevarría, Fernando De Ory, María Victoria Martínez de Aragón
Abstract
The mumps vaccine (Jeryl-Lynn-strain) was introduced in Spain in 1981, and a vaccination policy which included a second dose was added in 1995. From 1992–1999, a Rubini-strain based vaccine was administered in many regions but later withdrawn due to lack of effectiveness. Despite high levels of vaccination coverage, epidemics have continued to appear.
We characterized the three epidemic waves of mumps between 1998 and 2014, identifying major changes in susceptible populations using Poisson regression.
For the period 1998–2003 (P1), the most affected group was from 1 to 4 years old (y) [Incidence Rate (IR)=71.7 cases/100,000 population]; in the periods 2004–2009 (P2) and 2010–2014 (P3) IR ratio (IRR) increased among 15–24y (P2=1.46; P3=2.68) and 25–34y (P2=2.17; P3=4.05).
Hospitalization rate (HR), complication rate (CR) and neurological complication rate (NR) among hospitalized subjects decreased across the epidemics, except for 25–34y which increased: HR ratio (HRR) (P2=2.18; P3=2.16), CRR (P3=2.48), NRR (P3=2.41).
In Spain mumps incidence increased, while an overall decrease of hospitalizations and severe complications occurred across the epidemics. Cohorts born during periods of low vaccination coverage and those vaccinated with Rubini-strain were the most affected populations, leading to a shift in mumps cases from children to adolescents and young adults; this also reveals the waning immunity provided by the mumps vaccine. Despite not preventing all mumps cases, the vaccine appears to prevent serious forms of the disease.