From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary
 
 
Vaccine
Available online 7 September 2017
Review
Considerations for use of Ebola vaccine during an emergency response
JA Walldorf, EA Cloessner, TB Hyde, A MacNeil…
Abstract
Vaccination against Ebola virus disease is a tool that may limit disease transmission and deaths in future outbreaks, integrated within traditional Ebola outbreak prevention and control measures. Although a licensed Ebolavirus vaccine (EV) is not yet available, the 2014–2016 West African Ebola outbreak has accelerated EV clinical trials and given public health authorities in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone experience with implementation of emergency ring vaccination. As evidence supporting the use of EV during an outbreak response has become available, public health authorities in at-risk countries are considering how to integrate EV into future emergency Ebola responses and for prevention in high-risk groups, such as healthcare workers and frontline workers (HCW/FLWs), even before an EV is licensed. This review provides an overview of Ebola epidemiology, immunology, and evidence to inform regional and country-level decisions regarding EV delivery during an emergency response and to at-risk populations before a licensed vaccine is available and beyond. Countries or regions planning to use EV will need to assess factors such as the likelihood of a future Ebolavirus outbreak, the most likely species to cause an outbreak, the availability of a safe and effective EV (unlicensed or licensed) for the affected population, capacity to implement Ebola vaccination in conjunction with standard Ebola outbreak control measures, and availability of minimum essential resources and regulatory requirements to implement emergency Ebola vaccination. Potential emergency vaccination strategies for consideration include ring or geographically targeted community vaccination, HCW/FLW vaccination, and mass vaccination. The development of guidelines and protocols for Ebola vaccination will help ensure that activities are standardized, evidence-based, and well-coordinated with overall Ebola outbreak response efforts in the future.
 
 
Gut Microbes
Accepted author version posted online: 11 Sep 2017
Brief Report
Rotavirus Vaccine Response Correlates with the Infant Gut Microbiota Composition in Pakistan
V Harris, A Ali, S Fuentes, K Korpela, M Kazi, J Tate…
Abstract
Background
Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide, and ninety-five percent of rotavirus deaths occur in Africa and Asia. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) can dramatically reduce RV deaths, but have low efficacy in low-income settings where they are most needed. The intestinal microbiome may contribute to this decreased RVV efficacy. This pilot study hypothesizes that infants’ intestinal microbiota composition correlates with RVV immune responses and that RVV responders have different gut microbiota as compared to non-responders.
Methods
We conducted a nested, matched case-control study comparing the pre-vaccination intestinal microbiota composition between 10 6-week old Pakistani RVV-responders, 10 6-week old Pakistani RVV non-responders, and 10 healthy Dutch infants.  RVV response was defined as an Immunoglobulin A of ≥20 IU/mL following Rotarix™(RV1) vaccination in an infant with a pre-vaccination IgA<20. Infants were matched in a 1:1 ratio using ranked variables: RV1 dosing schedule (6/10/14; 6/10; or 10/14 weeks), RV season, delivery mode, delivery place, breastfeeding practices, age and gender. Fecal microbiota analysis was performed using a highly reproducible phylogenetic microarray.
Results
RV1 response correlated with a higher relative abundance of bacteria belonging to Clostridium cluster XI and Proteobacteria, including bacteria related to Serratia and Escherichia coli. Remarkably, abundance of these Proteobacteria was also significantly higher in Dutch infants when compared to RV1-non-responders in Pakistan.
Conclusions
This small but carefully matched study showed the intestinal microbiota composition to correlate with RV1 seroconversion in Pakistan infants, identifying signatures shared with healthy Dutch infants.
Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02220439

Health Behavior and Policy Review
2017  Volume 4, Number 5
Do Political and Religious Affiliations Impact HPV Vaccine Mandate Support?
BL Rosen, EL Thompson, KL Wilson, ML Smith –
Abstract
Objective: We attempted to identify characteristics of female college students supporting HPV vaccination mandates for school-aged youth and compare HPV vaccination mandate support by religious and political affiliations.
Methods: We analyzed data from 1034 college students. A multinomial logistic regression model was fitted using backwards stepwise entry.
Results: Students who self-identified as atheist and reported their parents supported HPV vaccination mandates were more likely to support HPV vaccination mandates. Those who believed mandates violated personal individual freedoms and parental rights were less likely to support mandates.
Conclusions: Interventions could focus on providing more education to groups more likely to oppose a mandate, thereby increasing support to protect school-aged youth from HPV.