Pneumococcal vaccination: Direct and herd effect on carriage of vaccine types and antibiotic resistance in Icelandic children

Vaccine
Volume 35, Issue 39, Pages 5225-5308 (18 September 2017)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0264410X/35/38?sdc=1

Original Research Article
Pneumococcal vaccination: Direct and herd effect on carriage of vaccine types and antibiotic resistance in Icelandic children
Pages 5242-5248
Samuel Sigurdsson et al…
Abstract
Background
Since the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, vaccine type pneumococcal carriage and disease has decreased world-wide. The aim was to monitor changes in the nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococci, the distribution of serotypes and antimicrobial resistance in children before and after initiation of the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccination in 2011, in a previously unvaccinated population.
Methods
Repeated cross-sectional study at 15 day-care centres in greater Reykjavik area. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected yearly in March from 2009 to 2015. The swabs were selectively cultured for pneumococci, which were serotyped using latex agglutination and/or PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility determined. Two independent studies were conducted.
In study 1, on total impact, isolates from children aged <4 years were included. The vaccine-eligible-cohort (birth-years: 2011–2013, sampled in 2013–2015) was compared with children at the same age born in 2005–2010 and sampled in 2009–2012. In study 2 on herd effect, isolates from older non-vaccine-eligible children (3.5–6.3 years) were compared for the periods before and after the vaccination (2009–2011 vs 2013–2015. Vaccine impact was determined using 1-odds-ratio.
Results
Following vaccination, the vaccine impact on vaccine type acquisition was 94% (95% CI: 91–96%) in study 1 and 56% (95% CI: 44–65%) in study 2. The impact on serotype 6 A was 33% (95% CI: −9%; 59%) in study 1 and 42% (95% CI: 10–63%) in study 2 with minimal effect on 19A. The non-vaccine serotypes/groups 6C, 11, 15 and 23B were the most common serotypes/groups after vaccination. Isolates from the vaccine-eligible-cohort had lower penicillin MICs, less resistance to erythromycin and co-trimoxazole and less multi resistance than isolates from the control-group.
Conclusions
The efficacy of the vaccination on vaccine serotypes was high, and a milder effect on vaccine-associated-serotype 6A was observed for the vaccine-eligible-cohort. There was a significant herd effect on vaccine types in older non-vaccine-eligible children. Overall antimicrobial non-susceptibility was reduced.