Sep 23, 2017 Volume 390 Number 10101 p1465-1562
John D Clemens, G Balakrish Nair, Tahmeed Ahmed, Firdausi Qadri, Jan Holmgren
Cholera is an acute, watery diarrhoeal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae of the O1 or O139 serogroups. In the past two centuries, cholera has emerged and spread from the Ganges Delta six times and from Indonesia once to cause global pandemics. Rational approaches to the case management of cholera with oral and intravenous rehydration therapy have reduced the case fatality of cholera from more than 50% to much less than 1%. Despite improvements in water quality, sanitation, and hygiene, as well as in the clinical treatment of cholera, the disease is still estimated to cause about 100 000 deaths every year. Most deaths occur in cholera-endemic settings, and virtually all deaths occur in developing countries. Contemporary understanding of immune protection against cholera, which results from local intestinal immunity, has yielded safe and protective orally administered cholera vaccines that are now globally stockpiled for use in the control of both epidemic and endemic cholera.