PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
(Accessed 23 September 2017)
Updated estimation of the impact of a Japanese encephalitis immunization program with live, attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccine in Nepal
Shyam Raj Upreti, Nicole P. Lindsey, Rajendra Bohara, Ganga Ram Choudhary, Sushil Shakya, Mukunda Gautam, Jagat Narain Giri, Marc Fischer, Susan L. Hills
Research Article | published 21 Sep 2017 PLO
In 2006, the Ministry of Health and Population in Nepal commenced a Japanese encephalitis (JE) immunization program using SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine, with mass campaigns conducted in selected districts, followed by introduction of JE vaccine into the routine childhood immunization program. JE and acute encephalitis syndrome data gathered through Nepal’s routine surveillance system from 2004 through 2014 were analyzed to assess the impact of this immunization program. Expected and observed JE and acute encephalitis syndrome cases and incidence rates were compared. Considerable impact on JE incidence was demonstrated and the results also suggested that a large proportion of acute encephalitis syndrome cases without laboratory confirmation are due to JE. The results support the belief that a JE immunization program will result in sizable reductions in the incidence of both laboratory-confirmed JE and clinical acute encephalitis syndrome cases. JE is a severe disease, and the program’s impact likely extended to reduction of rates of JE-related mortality and long-term disability.