BMC Health Services Research
(Accessed 30 September 2017)
Determinants of effective vaccine coverage in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review and interpretive synthesis
David E. Phillips, Joseph L. Dieleman, Stephen S. Lim and Jessica Shearer
BMC Health Services Research 2017 17:681
Published on: 26 September 2017
Many children in low and middle-income countries remain unvaccinated, and vaccines do not always produce immunity. Extensive research has sought to understand why, but most studies have been limited in breadth and depth. This study documents existing evidence on determinants of vaccination and immunization and presents a conceptual framework of determinants.
We used systematic review, content analysis, thematic analysis and interpretive synthesis to document and analyze the existing evidence on determinants of childhood vaccination and immunization.
We documented 1609 articles, including content analysis of 78 articles. Three major thematic models were described in the context of one another. Interpretive synthesis identified similarities and differences between studies, resulting in a conceptual framework with three principal vaccine utilization determinants: 1) Intent to Vaccinate, 2) Community Access and 3) Health Facility Readiness.
This study presents the most comprehensive systematic review of vaccine determinants to date. The conceptual framework represents a synthesis of multiple existing frameworks, is applicable in low and middle-income countries, and is quantitatively testable. Future researchers can use these results to develop competing conceptual frameworks, or to analyze data in a theoretically-grounded way. This review enables better research in the future, further understanding of immunization determinants, and greater progress against vaccine preventable diseases around the world.