From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

Clinical Infectious Diseases
21 November 2017  Accepted Manuscript
Immunogenicity and protection from a single dose of internationally available killed oral cholera vaccine: a systematic review and meta-analysis 
Anna Lena Lopez Jacqueline Deen Andrew S Azman Francisco J Luquero Suman Kanungo Shanta Dutta Lorenz von Seidlein David A Sack
In addition to improved water supply and sanitation, the two-dose killed oral cholera vaccine (OCV) is an important tool for the prevention and control of cholera. We aimed to document the immunogenicity and protection (efficacy and effectiveness) conferred by a single OCV dose against cholera. The meta-analysis showed an estimated 73% and 77% of individuals seroconverted to the Ogawa and Inaba serotypes, respectively, after an OCV first dose. The estimates of single-dose vaccine protection from available studies are 87% at 2 months decreasing to 33% at 2 years. Current immunologic and clinical data suggest that protection conferred by a single dose of killed OCV may be sufficient to reduce short-term risk in outbreaks or other high-risk settings, which may be especially useful when vaccine supply is limited. However, until more data suggests otherwise, a second dose should be given as soon as circumstances allow to ensure robust protection.

Nature Scientific Reports
Published online: 22 November 2017
Early vaccination protects against childhood leukemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Mostafa Ebraheem Morra, Nguyen Dang Kien […] Nguyen Tien Huy
Leukemia is the most commonly diagnosed childhood cancer, although its etiology is still largely unknown. Growing evidence supports a role for infection in the etiology of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and the involvement of the immune system suggests that vaccination may also play a role. However, the findings presented in the published literature are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a PRISMA systematic review and meta-analysis. 14 studies were identified and meta-analyzed. Vaccinations studied comprised Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, Triple vaccine, Hepatitis B vaccine (HBV), Polio, Measles, Rubella, Mumps, trivalent MMR vaccine and Haemophilus influenza type B (HiB) vaccine. We observed a protective association between any vaccination in the first year of life and risk of childhood leukemia (summary odds ratio (OR) 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.36–0.91]). When individual vaccines were analysed, some evidence of an association was seen only for BCG (summary OR 0.73 [95% CI 0.50–1.08]). In conclusion, early vaccination appears to be associated with a reduced risk of childhood leukemia. This finding may be underpinned by the association observed for BCG. Given the relatively imprecise nature of the results of this meta-analysis, our findings should be interpreted cautiously and replicated in future studies.

The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Volume 21, Number 12, 1 December 2017, pp. 1288-1293(6)
Knowledge of tuberculosis and vaccine trial preparedness in Lima, Peru
E Shu, ME Sobieszczyk, VG Sal y Rosas, P Segura…
SETTING: A safe, effective vaccine would improve tuberculosis (TB) control worldwide. Extensive community engagement will be essential to ensure the interest and participation of populations at highest risk.
OBJECTIVE/METHOD: To inform the potential implementation of efficacy studies, we assessed TB knowledge, attitudes towards licensed vaccines and willingness to participate in future TB vaccine efficacy trials among 262 household contacts of 79 recently diagnosed pulmonary TB cases in Lima, Peru.
RESULTS: Overall knowledge of TB was low. Only 41.6% of household contacts perceived themselves as being at high risk of acquiring TB. Slightly above half (54.2%) indicated willingness to participate in a TB vaccine trial. After clustered analysis adjusting for homogeneity among families, willingness to enroll was associated with belief that receiving all recommended vaccinations is important (adjusted OR [aOR] 3.28, P = 0.016), desire to know more about TB risk factors and clinical trials (aOR 2.60, P = 0.004), older age (aOR 1.02, P = 0.027) and TB knowledge (aOR 0.05, P = 0.039).
CONCLUSION: Barriers to participation in TB vaccine trials exist among individuals at high risk for TB. Targeted education about TB risk factors, TB transmission and education about the clinical trial process will be critical for laying the groundwork for future vaccine trials.