From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

Health Policy and Planning
Published: 11 December 2017
Social costs of illicit financial flows in low- and middle-income countries: the case of infant vaccination coverage
Bienvenido Ortega Jesús Sanjuán Antonio Casquero
The liberalization of capital flows is generally associated with prospects of higher growth. However, in developing countries, opening the capital account may also facilitate the flow of capital out of the country through illicit financial flows (IFFs). Given that IFFs drain the scarce public resources available to finance the provision of public goods and services, the extent of illicit capital flows from developing countries is serious cause for concern. In this context, as a first step in analysing the social costs of IFFs in developing countries, this article studied the relationship between IFFs and infant immunization coverage rates. Data for 56 low- and middle-income countries for the period 2002–13 were used in the empirical analysis. The main result was that the relative level of IFFs to total trade negatively impacted vaccination coverage but only in the case of countries with very high levels of perceived corruption. In this case, the total effect of an annual 1 p.p. increase in the ratio of IFFs to total trade was to reduce the level of vaccination coverage rates over the coming years by 0.19 p.p. Given that there was an annual average of 18 million infants in this cluster of 25 countries, this result suggests that at least 34 000 children may not receive this basic health care intervention in the future as a consequence of this increase in IFFs in any particular year.

2017, 6(4), 65;
Differences of Rotavirus Vaccine Effectiveness by Country: Likely Causes and Contributing Factors
U Desselberger
Rotaviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide and in many other mammalian and avian host species. Since 2006, two live-attenuated rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix® and RotaTeq®, have been licensed in >100 countries and are applied as part of extended program of vaccination (EPI) schemes of childhood vaccinations. Whereas the vaccines have been highly effective in high-income countries, they were shown to be considerably less potent in low- and middle-income countries. Rotavirus-associated disease was still the cause of death in >200,000 children of <5 years of age worldwide in 2013, and the mortality is concentrated in countries of sub-Saharan Africa and S.E. Asia. Various factors that have been identified or suggested as being involved in the differences of rotavirus vaccine effectiveness are reviewed here. Recognition of these factors will help to achieve gradual worldwide improvement of rotavirus vaccine effectiveness.

Public Health
05 Dec 2017, 154:102-109
Self-reported influenza vaccination rates and attitudes towards vaccination among health care workers: results of a survey in a German university hospital.
MH Hagemeister, NK Stock, T Ludwig, P Heuschmann…
The objective of this survey was to analyse vaccination rates and attitudes towards vaccination among health care workers (HCWs). The period prevalence of self-reported acute respiratory infections in the influenza season 2014/2015 was examined.A cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs of a German university hospital using an anonymised questionnaire. Recruitment was performed by providing all medical and nursing staff a paper questionnaire with an invitation to participate.Descriptive aggregated data were generated from digitalised questionnaires for all variables. Differences in categorical variables were analysed by Chi-squared test. Textual data were analysed by an iterative process based on the grounded theory by Glaser and Strauss.The response rate was 31% (677/2186). Probable influenza was described by 9% (64/677) of the participants. The overall self-reported vaccination rate was 55% (366/666). Self-reported vaccination rate was higher in physicians (172/239, 72%) than in nursing staff (188/418, 45%). HCWs in paediatrics (103/148, 70%) more likely received vaccines than HCWs in surgery (31/84, 37%). Most vaccinations were provided by medical staff on the wards (164/368, 45%). Self-reported lost work-time due to adverse events after vaccination was low (6/336, 2%). Eight categories for vaccine refusal were identified, whereof doubts about effectiveness and indication of the vaccine was most frequently mentioned (72/202, 36%).Efforts to promote vaccination should focus on nursing staff and should provide scientific evidence on effectiveness, adverse effects, and the benefits of health care workers’ vaccination for patients. Administering vaccines at the workplace proved to be a successful strategy in our setting. Studies are needed to assess the frequency of influenza causing disease in HCWs.

Medical Decision Making : an International Journal of the Society for Medical Decision Making
DOI: 10.1177/0272989X17704858
Effects of Anti-Versus Pro-Vaccine Narratives on Responses by Recipients Varying in Numeracy: A Cross-sectional Survey-Based Experiment.
W de Bruin Bruine, A Wallin, AM Parker, J Strough…
To inform their health decisions, patients may seek narratives describing other patients’ evaluations of their treatment experiences. Narratives can provide anti-treatment or pro-treatment evaluative meaning that low-numerate patients may especially struggle to derive from statistical information. Here, we examined whether anti-vaccine (v. pro-vaccine) narratives had relatively stronger effects on the perceived informativeness and judged vaccination probabilities reported among recipients with lower (v. higher) numeracy. Participants ( n=1,113) from a nationally representative US internet panel were randomly assigned to an anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine narrative, as presented by a patient discussing a personal experience, a physician discussing a patient’s experience, or a physician discussing the experiences of 50 patients. Anti-vaccine narratives described flu experiences of patients who got the flu after getting vaccinated; pro-vaccine narratives described flu experiences of patients who got the flu after not getting vaccinated. Participants indicated their probability of getting vaccinated and rated the informativeness of the narratives. Participants with lower numeracy generally perceived narratives as more informative. By comparison, participants with higher numeracy rated especially anti-vaccine narratives as less informative. Anti-vaccine narratives reduced the judged vaccination probabilities as compared with pro-vaccine narratives, especially among participants with lower numeracy. Mediation analyses suggested that low-numerate individuals’ vaccination probabilities were reduced by anti-vaccine narratives-and, to a lesser extent, boosted by pro-vaccine narratives-because they perceived narratives to be more informative. These findings were similar for narratives provided by patients and physicians. Patients with lower numeracy may rely more on narrative information when making their decisions. These findings have implications for the development of health communications and decision aids.