CDC/ACIP [to 17 February 2018]

CDC/ACIP [to 17 February 2018]
Latest News
Is the U.S. Export Economy at Risk from Global Infectious Outbreaks? – Press Release
Tuesday, February 13, 2018
In addition to tragic loss of life, the next global infectious disease outbreak could harm the U.S. export economy and threaten U.S. jobs—even if the disease never reaches our shores. Two Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) articles published in Health Security analyze the risks and show potential losses to the American export economy from an overseas outbreak.
The two articles underscore the importance of the President’s request this week for $59 million in support of the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) in Fiscal Year 2019.
“The President’s Budget request of $59 million for Fiscal Year 2019 for GHSA demonstrates the Administration’s commitment to global health security and provides an important bridge to the extension of the GHSA announced in October 2017 in Uganda,” said Anne Schuchat, M.D., acting Director of CDC. “This new funding continues the U.S. commitment to this multi-national effort and supplements U.S. Government multisector support for this initiative.”

America’s jobs at risk
The first of the two articles, Relevance of Global Health Security to the U.S. Export Economy, the potential disruption to the U.S. export economy if an infectious disease outbreak were to take hold in CDC’s 49 global health security priority countries.
Using 2015 U.S. Department of Commerce data, the article assesses the value of U.S. exports to the 49 countries and the number of jobs supported by those exports, finding that:
:: In 2015 the United States exported over $300 billion in material goods and services to the 49 global health security priority countries.1
:: These exports supported over 1.6 million American jobs across all 50 states, in sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing, and natural resource extraction.1
CDC’s global health security efforts stop outbreaks where they start to protect health worldwide, in turn protecting demand for U.S. exports and the jobs they support in America.
What could happen to the U.S. export economy if an epidemic hits Asia?

The second article, Impact of Hypothetical Infectious Disease Outbreak on U.S. Exports and Export-Based Jobs, examines what could happen to the U.S. economy if an epidemic were to strike a key region, such as Southeast Asia. The article demonstrates how an epidemic spanning nine countries in Asia could cost the U.S. over $40 billion in export revenues and put more than 1 million U.S. jobs at risk.2
Southeast Asia is at greater risk for an emerging infectious disease event due to zoonotic, drug-resistant, and vector-borne diseases. Exports to Asia support the largest number of U.S. export-related jobs, which is why a large-scale infectious disease outbreak in this region could significantly disrupt the U.S. export economy.
The article illustrates the potential impact on the U.S. economy of an outbreak in just one affected country, and then expands the hypothetical scenario to look at what might happen if the outbreak were to spread across the region. Economic models used in the scenario take into account a large number of variables, including the interconnections between sectors of an economy and the trade between countries.
“The results of this hypothetical scenario show that the U.S. economy is better protected when public health threats are quickly identified and contained,” said Rebecca Martin, Ph.D., director, CDC’s Center for Global Health.
These articles offer valuable findings for policymakers and partners to consider when prioritizing programs to improve prevention, detection, and response to outbreaks around the world, and thereby reduce the potential threat to global markets and U.S. jobs.
Cassell C, Bambery Z, Kakoli R, et al. Relevance of global health security to the US export economy. Health Security. 2017;15(6):563-568.
Bambery Z, Cassell C, Bunnell R, et al. Impact of a hypothetical infectious disease outbeak on US exports and export-based jobs. Health Security. 2018;16(1).

February 21-22, 2018 Draft Meeting Agenda[2 pages]
Register for upcoming February ACIP meeting
February 21-22, 2018
Deadline for registration:
Non-US Citizens: January 24, 2018
US Citizens: February 5, 2018
MMWR News Synopsis for February 15, 2018 / No. 5
:: Update: Influenza Activity — United States, October 1, 2017–February 3, 2018
Influenza activity this season has been substantial, with some of the highest levels of influenza-like illness and hospitalization rates recorded in recent years, with elevated activity occurring in most of the country simultaneously.  Elevated influenza activity is expected to continue for several more weeks. Influenza activity in the United States began to increase in early November 2017 and rose sharply from December through February 3, 2018. Influenza A viruses were most commonly identified, with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominating, but influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B viruses also were detected. With several more weeks of elevated influenza activity expected, an increasing proportion of influenza A(H1N1)pmd09 and influenza B viruses, and the potential to prevent significant illness through influenza vaccination, CDC continues to recommend influenza vaccination at this time. During more severe influenza seasons, influenza antiviral medications can be of greater usey as an adjunct to vaccination in the treatment of influenza.  While most people with influenza will experience uncomplicated illness and recover without needing medical care, some people are at high risk of developing serious flu complications. Early treatment with neuraminidase inhibitor antiviral medications is recommended for patients with severe, complicated, or progressive influenza illness and people who are at high risk for influenza complications, including adults aged ≥65 years, who develop influenza symptoms. Everyday preventive measures such as cough and respiratory etiquette, staying home from work or school when sick and frequent hand hygiene, also can help slow the spread of influenza.

:: Interim Estimates of 2017–18 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness — United States, February 2018
While flu vaccines vary in how well they work, vaccination can provide important protection against influenza. People age 6 months or older who have not yet been vaccinated this season should be vaccinated. However, some people who get vaccinated will still get sick with influenza. People who are very sick or who are at high risk of serious flu complications should be treated with flu antiviral medications as soon as they develop flu symptoms. Early estimates indicate that influenza vaccines have reduced the risk of medically attended influenza-related illness by about one-third in vaccinated persons so far this season. Vaccination reduced illness caused by the predominant influenza A(H3N2) viruses by 25 percent among patients of all ages, and among vaccinated children 6 months through 8 years of age by more than half (59 percent). Vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses was 67 percent and against influenza B viruses was 42 percent.  Effectiveness against influenza A(H3N2) viruses is typically lower than against influenza A(H1N1) and influenza B viruses and CDC is actively investigating possible reasons. For these estimates, 4,562 children and adults with acute respiratory illness were enrolled from November 2, 2017 through February 3, 2018, at five study sites with outpatient medical facilities in the United States.