Low Prevalence of Hepatitis B Vaccination Among Patients Receiving Medical Care for HIV Infection in the United States, 2009 to 2012

Annals of Internal Medicine
20 February 2018 Vol: 168, Issue 4
http://annals.org/aim/issue

Original Research
Low Prevalence of Hepatitis B Vaccination Among Patients Receiving Medical Care for HIV Infection in the United States, 2009 to 2012
John Weiser, MD, MPH; Alejandro Perez, MPH; Heather Bradley, PhD; Hope King, PhD, MSPH; R. Luke Shouse, MD, MPH
Abstract
Background: Persons with HIV infection are at increased risk for hepatitis B virus infection. In 2016, the World Health Organization resolved to eliminate hepatitis B as a public health threat by 2030.
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B vaccination among U.S. patients receiving medical care for HIV infection (“HIV patients”).
Design: Nationally representative cross-sectional survey.
Setting: United States.
Participants: 18 089 adults receiving HIV medical care who participated in the Medical Monitoring Project during 2009 to 2012.
Measurements: Primary outcomes were prevalence of 1) no documentation of hepatitis B vaccination or laboratory evidence of immunity or infection (candidates to initiate vaccination), and 2) initiation of vaccination among candidates, defined as documentation of at least 1 vaccine dose in a 1-year surveillance period during which patients received ongoing HIV medical care.
Results: At the beginning of the surveillance period, 44.2% (95% CI, 42.2% to 46.2%) of U.S. HIV patients were candidates to initiate vaccination. By the end of the surveillance period, 9.6% (CI, 8.4% to 10.8%) of candidates were vaccinated, 7.5% (CI, 6.4% to 8.6%) had no documented vaccination but had documented infection or immunity, and 82.9% (CI, 81.1% to 84.7%) remained candidates. Among patients at facilities funded by the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP), 12.5% (CI, 11.1% to 13.9%) were vaccinated during the surveillance period versus 3.7% (CI, 2.6% to 4.7%) at facilities not funded by RWHAP. At the end of surveillance, 36.7% (CI, 34.4% to 38.9%) of HIV patients were candidates to initiate vaccination.
Limitation: The study was not designed to describe vaccine series completion or actual prevalence of immunity.
Conclusion: More than one third of U.S. HIV patients had missed opportunities to initiate hepatitis B vaccination. Meeting goals for hepatitis B elimination will require increased vaccination of HIV patients in all practice settings, particularly at facilities not funded by RWHAP.
Primary Funding Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.