Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 28 March 2018 [GPEI]
Summary of newly-reported viruses this week:
Afghanistan: One new case of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) has been confirmed this week, occurring in Kandahar province. One new WPV1 positive environmental sample has been reported in Kabul province.
Pakistan: Two new WPV1 positive environmental samples have been reported, one in Sindh province, and one in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.
Somalia:  Confirmation of one new cVDPV2 positive environmental sample in Banadir province. This sample was advance notification last week.
Syria cVDPV2 outbreak situation report 38, 27 March 2018
Situation update 27 March 2018
:: No new cases of cVDPV2 have been reported in 2018. The most recent case (by date of onset of paralysis) is 21 September 2017 from Boukamal district, Deir Ez-Zor governorate. The total number of cVDPV2 cases remains 74.
:: An independent outbreak response Review of the cVDPV2 outbreak in Syria is taking place this week. The review will look at the current epidemiological situation, the quality of immunization and surveillance response as well as the overall progress towards stopping the cVDPV2 transmission.
:: On 17 March 2018, representatives from the Lebanon and Syria Ministries of Health held the first joint cross border coordination meeting focused on acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Recommendations were made to ensure close coordination on AFP case detection, with focus on Syrian populations in Lebanon and consistent exchange of information on cross border notified AFP cases.
:: A two day meeting to discuss progress of immunization in Syria in 2017 was held in Amman, Jordan on 21 – 22 March. Representatives from WHO, UNICEF and GAVI discussed all immunization activities and the cVDPV2 outbreak response, including future support opportunities.
:: Four fixed site vaccination centres have been established to ensure internally displaced persons (IDPs) moving from Ghouta receive polio vaccine alongside all other antigens. · A nationwide immunization round aiming to reach more than 2.4 million children aged less than 5 years with bivalent OPV (bOPV) has concluded.

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies  [to 31 March 2018]
The Syrian Arab Republic
:: Syria cVDPV2 outbreak situation report 38, 27 March 2018
[See Polio above]

WHO appeals for international community support; warns of grave health risks to Rohingya refugees in rainy season

Dhaka, 29 March 2018: With a grossly underfunded health sector grappling to meet the needs of 1.3 million Rohingyas in Bangladesh’s Cox’s Bazar, the World Health Organization has appealed to the international community to contribute generously to enable appropriate and timely health services to this highly vulnerable population, now facing grave risks to their lives and health in view of the coming rainy season.

“This is one of the biggest humanitarian crisis in recent times. No single agency or the Government of Bangladesh alone can meet the massive health needs of such a large population group. The Rohingya population are settled in an area that is prone to cyclone, and a terrain that would be flooded as soon as rains begin. The risk of outbreak of life threatening water and vector borne diseases under such conditions is huge,” said Dr Poonam Khetrapal Singh, Regional Director, World Health Organization South-East Asia, at a meeting of partners here.

Coordinating the work of over a 100 partners on the ground along with the Ministry of Health, WHO has facilitated the contingency plan for the rainy season and coordinated a simulation around it. The plan aims at continuity of health services during rains and floods to minimize the risk of disease and deaths among the affected population. All 207 health facilities in the area have been assessed for vulnerability during rains, following which nearly 25% of them are being relocated.

Another cholera and measles vaccination campaign is being planned in April as a preventive measure for the vulnerable population. Earlier, 900,000 doses of cholera vaccine were administered to the refugees and their host communities, in addition to two vaccination campaigns for measles and three for diphtheria which concluded earlier this week with WHO support.

WHO is prepositioning medicines, medical supplies and equipment for the rainy season. Since the start of the Rohingya crisis, WHO has provided over 120 tons of supplies and logistics support to partners. WHO continues to provide critical technical support such as surveillance for epidemic prone and other diseases, collecting and sharing of information and data to enable the health sector take timely preventive / response measures and conducting preparedness trainings for the upcoming monsoons.

“However, much of the health sector’s capacity to respond depends on availability of resources,” Dr Khetrapal Singh, who visited the Rohingya camps earlier in the week, said. The rainy season is almost here, the sooner the health sector gets the funds it needs, the better would be its ability to scale up services to quickly and adequately respond to health needs of the refugees.
Besides risks posed by floods and rain, the vulnerable population would need continued services for reproductive, maternal and child health, for communicable and non-communicable diseases, as well as psychosocial support, the Regional Director said.

Earlier in Cox’s Bazar, Dr Khetrapal Singh visited the warehouse where WHO has prepositioned supplies. She observed diphtheria vaccination campaign, inaugurated a fixed immunization site where children were being administered routine immunization, and visited a primary health centre and a diphtheria treatment centre run by Samaritan’s Purse.

WHO has appealed for 16.5 million USD from partners to facilitate its continued support to the Rohingya response in 2018, which is part of the 113.1 million USD being sought by all health partners together under the Joint Response Plan for the Rohingya crisis.

UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
:: Humanitarian Conference on the DRC (13 April 2018)
OCHA, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the United Arab Emirates and the European Union are hosting a Humanitarian Conference on the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) on Friday 13 April 2018, at the Palais des Nations in Geneva.

Syrian Arab Republic
:: Turkey | Syria: Situation in North-western Syria – Situation Report No.1 (as of 29 March 2018) 27 Mar 2018
:: Syrian Arab Republic: East Ghouta Displacement Situation Report No. 1 (26 March 2018)

:: Yemen: Impact of the closure of seaports and airports on the humanitarian situation – Situation Update 3 | 23 November 2017

UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
:: Ethiopia Humanitarian Bulletin Issue 49 | 12 – 25 March 2019

Rohinga Refugee Crisis 
:: ISCG Situation Report: Rohingya Refugee Crisis, Cox’s Bazar | 25 March 2018

:: Humanitarian Bulletin Somalia, 30 March 2018
…4.7 million children targeted in nationwide measles vaccination.
A nationwide campaign to protect Somali children against the deadly effects of measles has reached nearly 4.7 million of them. The campaign which was carried out by the Ministry of Health at the national and local levels and humanitarian partners, targeted children aged between six months and 10 years.
…The first round of the Oral Cholera Vaccination campaign in Afmadow and Hudur was completed in March.
Editor’s Note:
We will cluster these recent emergencies as below and continue to monitor the WHO webpages for updates and key developments.
Yellow Fever  [to 31 March 2018]
[See CDC [U.S.] briefing content below]