CDC/ACIP [to 19 May 2018]

CDC/ACIP [to 19 May 2018]

Wednesday, May 16, 2018
New Rapid Rabies Test Could Revolutionize Testing and Treatment
A new rabies test developed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) could mean people exposed to potentially rabid animals could forego the weeks-long regimen of shots to prevent the deadly disease.
The new test, designed for use in animals, can more easily and precisely diagnose rabies infection, according to a study published today in PLOS One. The new LN34 test is simpler and easier to use than current tests. During the pilot study, it produced no false negatives, fewer false positive, and fewer inconclusive results. It could allow doctors and patients to make better informed decisions about who needs treatment for rabies, which is nearly always fatal once symptoms start.
The LN34 test can also be run on testing platforms already widely used in the U.S. and worldwide, without any extra training. And it yields results even from decomposing animal brain tissue. The current gold-standard for rabies testing in animals is the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test, which can only be interpreted by laboratory workers with special skills, extensive training, and a specific type of microscope…

MMWR News Synopsis for May 17, 2018
Community-Based Services to Improve Testing and Linkage to Care Among Non-U.S.-Born Persons with Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection – Three U.S. Programs, October 2014-September 2017
   Strategic partnerships with public health departments, medical clinics, and community organizations are successful in developing hepatitis B programs that offer community-based testing services and linkage to care in hard to reach, non-U.S.-born populations.
In the United States, 70 percent of people living with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are non-U.S. born. To mitigate morbidity and mortality associated with HBV among this heavily impacted population, CDC funded a cooperative agreement to develop hepatitis B testing and linkage to care programs serving non-U.S.-born people from October 2014 to September 2017. This report summarizes the efforts of these programs and their partnerships with primary care centers, community-based services, and public health departments. Among the findings: 7.5 percent of program participants tested positive for HBV; 85 percent of those who tested positive attended at least one medical visit; and 78 percent received recommended care.

Trends in Antiretroviral Therapy Eligibility and Coverage Among HIV-Infected Children Aged <15 Years – 20 PEPFAR-Supported Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2012-2016
   A CDC analysis of 20 African countries shows that more children living with HIV were on treatment in 2016 than in 2012, but 56 percent remain without treatment. More work is needed to control the HIV epidemic among children by diagnosing those living with HIV, and starting and maintaining them on treatment.
A CDC analysis of 20 African countries, supported by the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), shows more children living with HIV are on antiretroviral therapy (ART), which can help them live longer, healthier lives. The study revealed the percentage of HIV-positive children on ART in these countries increased from 24 percent in 2012 to 44 percent in 2016. However, 56 percent of children living with HIV were not receiving treatment in 2016. The study also showed that 13 of the 20 countries adopted the 2016 World Health Organization guidelines, which expanded treatment eligibility to all children by 2016. The research suggests that more work is needed to control the HIV epidemic by increasing diagnosis of HIV-positive children, as well as starting and maintaining them on treatment.

Cholera Epidemic – Lusaka, Zambia, 2017-2018
Cholera will remain a global health risk until underlying and widespread water, sanitation and hygiene gaps are addressed. Under a new strategy called “Ending Cholera,” the Global Task Force for Cholera Control, chaired by WHO, recently proposed investments in water, sanitation, and hygiene; emergency preparedness; and cholera vaccination in cholera hotspots to reduce cholera deaths by 90 percent and eliminate local cholera transmission in 20 countries by 2030.
A recent cholera outbreak in Lusaka, Zambia demonstrates the need for rapid and robust responses during initial stages of outbreaks, enhanced surveillance, and access to chlorinated drinking water. The outbreak began in October 2017 and resulted in almost 5,000 cases and 93 deaths in the capital city of Lusaka. Of the local water sources tested, 73 percent had insufficient chlorine levels and one third had fecal contamination. During January–February 2018, the Zambian government and partners collaborated to improve water supplies, provide education, and administer oral cholera vaccine. However, heavy flooding and widespread water shortages led to a resurgence of cholera in March. Cholera remains a significant global public health problem with about 3 million cases each year and over a billion people at risk for infection, primarily due to contaminated drinking water.

Register for upcoming June ACIP meeting
June 20-21, 2018
Deadline for registration:
Non-US Citizens: May 16, 2018
US Citizens: June 11, 2018
Registration is NOT required to watch the live meeting webcast or to listen via telephone.