Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 24 July 2018 [GPEI]
:: Strengthening vaccine trust in Pakistan: How a vaccine refuser became an advocate for polio eradication.
:: Disease surveillance innovations help defeat the poliovirus: Across the Lake Chad Basin, e-Surve technology is reshaping the way that the polio programme conducts disease surveillance.

Summary of new cases this week:
::   Following advance notification last week, one wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case in Chawkay district, Kunar province, has been confirmed. The case had onset of paralysis on 22 June.
:: Five new WPV1 positive environmental samples were reported in the past week. Two samples were collected in Kabul province on 26 June, two samples were collected in Kandahar province, one on 26 June and one on 5 July, and one sample was collected in Nangarhar province, on 26 June.
:: Three new WPV1 positive environmental samples were reported in the past week. All samples were collected on 10 July, one in Islamabad province, one in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and one in Punjab province.
:: Two cVDPV2 positive environmental samples detected in Sokoto State have been confirmed, following advance notification last week. The samples were collected on 5 June and 12 June.


WHO Grade 3 Emergencies  [to 28 Jul 2018]
:: WHO airlifts 168 tonnes of life-saving medicines and medical supplies to Yemen
20 July 2018— Seven WHO-chartered aircraft have landed in Sana’a Airport this week, while between 30 to 50 tonnes of medicines and medical supplies reach Aden regularly by a UN ship run by the World Food Programme (WFP). In total this week more than 200 tonnes of life-saving medicines and medical supplies, and emergency equipment have been delivered in Yemen by WHO, in partnership with WFP and the logistic cluster, as health needs in Yemen grow at an alarming pace.
The shipments contain Interagency Emergency Health Kits (IEHK), surgical kits, cholera kits, intravenous (IV) fluids and various types of antibiotics which are much-needed by health facilities across the country, particularly in Hudaydah and Aden. Around 120 tonnes of these supplies will be distributed to Al Hudaydah as part of WHO plans to scale up health interventions in the governorates affected by the recent intensification of the military operations…

Iraq  – No new announcements identified
Nigeria  – No new announcements identified
South Sudan  – No new announcements identified
The Syrian Arab Republic – No new announcements identified
WHO Grade 2 Emergencies  [to 28 Jul 2018]
[Several emergency pages were not available at inquiry]
Cameroon  – No new announcements identified
Central African Republic  No new announcements identified.
Democratic Republic of the Congo  No new announcements identified
Ethiopia  No new announcements identified.
LibyaNo new announcements identified.
Myanmar  – No new announcements identified
Niger  – No new announcements identified.
UkraineNo new announcements identified.

UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic 
:: Syrian Arab Republic: Dar’a, Quneitra, As-Sweida Situation Report No. 4 as of 26 July 2018

:: Yemen: Al Hudaydah Update Situation Report No. 9 – Reporting Period: 14 – 24 July 2018


UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
Ethiopia  No new announcements identified.
Somalia   – No new announcements identified.

Editor’s Note:
We will cluster these recent emergencies as below and continue to monitor the WHO webpages for updates and key developments.

EBOLA/EVD  [to 28 Jul 2018]
:: Ebola outbreak in DRC ends: WHO calls for international efforts to stop other deadly outbreaks in the country  24 July 2018
[See Milestones/Perspectives above for more detail]

MERS-CoV [to 28 Jul 2018]
:: MERS situation update, June 2018
:: At the end of June 2018, a total of 2229 laboratory-confirmed cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), including 791 associated deaths (case–fatality rate: 35.5%) were reported globally; the majority of these cases were reported from Saudi Arabia (1853 cases, including 717 related deaths with a case–fatality rate of 38.7%).
:: During the month of June, a total of 4 laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS were reported in Saudi Arabia including 1 associated death (case-fatality rate: 25%). No healthcare associated transmission or hospital outbreak was reported during this month.
:: The demographic and epidemiological characteristics of reported cases, when compared during the same corresponding period of 2013 to 2018, do not show any significant difference or change. Owing to improved infection prevention and control practices in hospitals, the number of hospital-acquired cases of MERS has dropped significantly since 2015.
:: The age group 50–59 years continues to be at highest risk for acquiring infection of primary cases. The age group 30–39 years is most at risk for secondary cases. The number of deaths is higher in the age group 50–59 years for primary cases and 70–79 years for secondary cases.
Yellow Fever  [to 28 Jul 2018]
No new announcements identified.
Zika virus  [to 28 Jul 2018]
:: Progress toward discovery of Zika virus vaccines and therapeutics
23 July 2018
…Studies in animal models have shown promising results of Zika virus vaccines for preventing maternal-fetal transmission and generating immunity in the vaccine recipient, but further validation is still required in clinical settings. Several vaccine candidates are currently in phase 1 and 2 of human clinical trials, summarized in the WHO vaccine pipeline tracker.
Many hurdles remain, however, before a vaccine will become available. The limited number of cases occurring globally limits the ability of studies to evaluate the protective effects of vaccines in phase 3 human trials. To prepare sites for future clinical trials, mathematical modelling is being used to predict when and where potential future Zika outbreaks may occur, but accurately predicting and preparing sites for future multi-centre clinical trials present unique logistical challenges. In the absence of a suitable population and/or environment to test a candidate vaccine, other options for clinical evaluation are being considered…
:: Zika vaccines and therapeutics: landscape analysis and challenges ahead
Wilder-Smith A, Vannice K, Durbin A, Hombach J, Thomas SJ, Thevarjan I, Simmons CP. BMC Med. 2018 Jun; 16(1):84.