From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

Reviews in Medical Virology
First published: 29 August 2018
Rotavirus: Genetics, pathogenesis and vaccine advances
A Sadiq, N Bostan, KC Yinda, S Naseem, S Sattar – 2018
Since its discovery 40 years ago, rotavirus (RV) is considered to be a major cause of infant and childhood morbidity and mortality particularly in developing countries. Nearly every child in the world under 5 years of age is at the risk of RV infection. It is estimated that 90% of RV‐associated mortalities occur in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Two live oral vaccines, RotaTeq (RV5, Merck) and Rotarix (RV1, GlaxoSmithKline) have been successfully deployed to scale down the disease burden in Europe and America, but they are less effective in Africa and Asia. In April 2009, the World Health Organization recommended the inclusion of RV vaccination in national immunization programs of all countries with great emphasis in developing countries. To date, 86 countries have included RV vaccines into their national immunization programs including 41 Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization eligible countries. The predominant RV genotypes circulating all over the world are G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], and G9P[8], while G12[P6] and G12[P8] are emerging genotypes. On account of the segmented genome, RV shows an enormous genetic diversity that leads to the evolution of new genotypes that can influence the efficacy of current vaccines. The current need is for a global RV surveillance program to monitor the prevalence and antigenic variability of new genotypes to formulate future vaccine development planning. In this review, we will summarize the previous and recent insights into RV structure, classification, and epidemiology and current status of RV vaccination around the globe and will also cover the status of RV research and vaccine policy in Pakistan.

Public Health
Volume 164, November 2018, Pages 16-25
Original Research
What is causing high polio vaccine dropout among Pakistani children?
W Imran, F Abbas, SA Javed – Public Health, 2018
:: In almost three decades, there is about 58 percentage point reduction in polio dropout across Pakistan.
:: Rural Pakistani child is highly likely to be dropout of polio vaccination relative to his/her urban counterparts.
:: Significant likelihood of increase in never-vaccinated children in Baluchistan, KPK, and Sindh during 2012–13 is alarming.
:: Children of female-headed household are less likely to be dropouts.

Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health (JPMPH)
2018 Jul; 51(4): 173–180.  Published online 2018 May 25.
Original Article
Factors Influencing Vaccination in Korea: Findings From Focus Group Interviews
Bomi Park,1 Eun Jeong Choi,1 Bohyun Park,1 Hyejin Han,1 Su Jin Cho,2 Hee Jung Choi,3 Seonhwa Lee,1 and Hyesook Park1
Immunization is considered one of the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions protecting communities from preventable infectious diseases. The Korean government set up a dedicated workforce for national immunization in 2003, and since then has made strides in improving vaccination coverage across the nation. However, some groups remain relatively vulnerable and require intervention, and it is necessary to address unmet needs to prevent outbreaks of communicable diseases. This study was conducted to characterize persistent challenges to vaccination.
The study adopted a qualitative method in accordance with the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research checklist. Three focus group interviews were conducted with 15 professionals in charge of vaccination-related duties. The interviews were conducted according to a semi-structured guideline, and thematic analysis was carried out. Data saturation was confirmed when the researchers agreed that no more new codes could be found.
A total of 4 main topics and 11 subtopics were introduced regarding barriers to vaccination. The main topics were vaccine hesitancy, personal circumstances, lack of information, and misclassification. Among them, vaccine hesitancy was confirmed to be the most significant factor impeding vaccination. It was also found that the factors hindering vaccination had changed over time and disproportionately affected certain groups.
The study identified ongoing unmet needs and barriers to vaccination despite the accomplishments of the National Immunization Program. The results have implications for establishing tailored interventions that target context- and group-specific barriers to improve timely and complete vaccination coverage.