Milestones :: Perspectives
World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) [to 8 Sep 2018]
7 September 2018
Countries reaffirm political will to globally eradicate Peste des petits ruminants
The aim is to stamp out a virus, which kills millions of sheep and goats each year, and thus protect the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of poor rural families.
Brussels, 7 September 2018 – Over 45 countries today renewed their commitment to globally eradicate by 2030, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), a highly contagious and devastating disease responsible for the death of millions of sheep and goats each year. At the same time, countries urged resource partners and the development community to contribute in bridging the PPR Global Eradication Programme’s US$340 million funding gap.
The decision to reaffirm this international political engagement and encourage resource partners to join the fight against the disease came at the global conference: Partnering and investing for a PPR-free world, organised by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and hosted by the European Commission in Brussels…
…The PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy was initially adopted at a 2015 conference in Abidjan jointly organized by FAO and the OIE. Through a 2017-2021 PPR Global Eradication Programme, countries formulated National Strategic Plans, which detail the steps for assessing, controlling, and eradicating the PPR virus, maintaining PPR virus freedom, as well as the financial resources required and committed by national authorities to implement these plans…
PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy
FAP, OiE 2015: 8 pages
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) can severely affect small ruminants in almost 70 countries in Africa, the Middle East and parts of Asia. It is a highly contagious disease that causes USD 1.5 to 2 billion in losses each year in regions that are home to over 80% of the world’s sheep and goats and to more than 330 million of the world’s poorest people, many of whom depend on them for their livelihoods. The disease threatens food security and the livelihoods of smallholders and prevents animal husbandry sectors from achieving their economic potential. Reducing the number of PPR-endemic countries is therefore a shared interest and should be considered a Global Public Good.
PPR, as one of the most damaging of all animal diseases, is among the priority diseases indicated in the FAO-OIE Global Framework for the Progressive Control of Transboundary Animal Diseases (GF-TADs) 5 Year Action Plan. In response to recommendations of GF-TADs, a resolution by the World Assembly of Delegates of the OIE and recommendations of the Committee on Agriculture (COAG) and the Council of FAO, the GF-TADs Working group has developed the PPR Global Control and Eradication Strategy (hereinafter the ‘Global Strategy’), which is being presented at the FAO and OIE International Conference for the Control and Eradication of peste des petits ruminants to be held in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire), from 31 March to 2 April 2015.
The Global Strategy described in this document is not a ‘stand-alone’ activity designed for PPR control and eradication only. It will allow progress to be made in other fields, with the strengthening of Veterinary Services as a cornerstone of the strategy which will provide the necessary enabling environment to control other animal diseases through a cost-effective combination of activities against several major diseases of small ruminants…
One of the key conditions for the success of the global rinderpest eradication programme was the use a rinderpest vaccine that was highly efficacious in protecting animals against all rinderpest virus strains. A similar tool also exists for the prevention and control of PPR. Indeed efficient live attenuated PPR vaccines are available that can induce lifelong protective immunity in vaccinated animals (see Annex 3.2).
Currently more than 20 manufacturers produce PPR vaccine. Therefore, it will be of the utmost importance for the products of all these manufacturers, before their use in the field, to be certified as meeting OIE vaccine quality standards (24) to ensure their efficacy. In that regard, the certification body should be an independent institution such as the African Union Pan-African Veterinary Vaccine Centre (AU-PANVAC), which ensures the quality control of various veterinary vaccines, including PPR vaccine, in Africa. PANVAC is an OIE and FAO Collaborating/ Reference Centre for quality control of veterinary vaccines.
Current PPR virus (PPRV) attenuated vaccines are thermolabile and to avoid their thermal inactivation they require uninterrupted maintenance of the cold chain until their application to the animal. The currently commercially available vaccines are in freeze-dried form and they are stable for at least two years at 2°C to 8°C and for several years at –20°C. Once the vaccine is reconstituted, it needs to be utilised as soon as possible, but not later than 30 minutes after dilution. Most of the PPR-endemic regions have a hot climate and they usually have poor infrastructure to maintain the cold chain needed to preserve vaccine potency and efficacy. To address this constraint, many research laboratories have succeeded in improving the freeze-drying conditions in the presence of cryoprotectants to obtain a thermostable PPR vaccine product. It is expected that the continued transfer of these newer technologies to vaccine
manufacturers will improve the quality of the final products delivered in the field.
Consideration should be given to the constitution of regional vaccine banks to ensure vaccine availability in case of emergencies. The OIE has established vaccine banks using the concept of virtual rolling stocks (32): the supplier (vaccine production companies selected through calls for tender based on international standards) produces the vaccines when needed or a limited physical stock of vaccines remains with the supplier and is renewed on a rolling basis under terms and conditions contractually defined with the OIE. This concept enables the rapid supply of an emergency stock of vaccines to infected countries in order to vaccinate animal populations at risk and to progressively achieve eradication wherever possible. The concept can also serve the purpose of delivering quality vaccine for the annual control programmes, in a non-emergency situation…