CAR T cells for infection, autoimmunity and allotransplantation

Nature Reviews Immunology
Volume 18 Issue 10, October 2018
https://www.nature.com/nri/volumes/18/issues/10

Review Article | 25 July 2018
CAR T cells for infection, autoimmunity and allotransplantation
This Review explores the challenges and opportunities of taking CARs down new therapeutic roads, in terms of developing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for treating infectious disease, autoimmunity and transplant rejection.
Colby R. Maldini, Gavin I. Ellis & James L. Riley
Abstract
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have shown remarkable ability to re-direct T cells to target CD19-expressing tumours, resulting in remission rates of up to 90% in individuals with paediatric acute lymphoblastic lymphoma. Lessons learned from these clinical trials of adoptive T cell therapy for cancer, as well as investments made in manufacturing T cells at commercial scale, have inspired researchers to develop CARs for additional applications. Here, we explore the challenges and opportunities of using this technology to target infectious diseases such as with HIV and undesired immune responses such as autoimmunity and transplant rejection. Despite substantial obstacles, the potential of CAR T cells to enable cures for a wide array of disease settings could be transformational for the medical field.