From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary
Journal of Global Oncology
- 4_suppl_2 (October 1 2018)
Track 1 – Motivating Prevention and Healthy Behaviours
HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening in Taiwan
MJ Chen, CY Wu, R Chen, YW Wang
Background and context: Cervical cancer has been one of the most important cancers over the last 3 decades in Taiwan, and it still is among the top 10 cause of death for women. Aim: The aim of the policy was to achieving the following KPIs: HPV vaccine inoculation rate to 60%; 30-69 year Papanicolaou test screening rate ≥ 70%; and cervical cancer mortality dropped to 3.3/105 (baseline 1995 = 11/105). Strategy/Tactics: We provided annual Pap test for all women aged 30 years or more since 1995 and encourage women to screen at least every 3 years. We will introduce national HPV vaccination program for girls aged 13 years later this year. Program/Policy Process: We used a coordinated multichannel delivery system including clinical and community approaches that empower people to access services. The cost of treatment was covered by the universal health insurance. Our vaccination program started from whom are likely to have less access to screening later in life since 2011, and some cities/counties initiated their own vaccination program. Our national HPV vaccination aims to increase the inoculation rate to 60%. Outcomes: The standardized cervical cancer incidence rate decreased by 66%, from 25 per 100,000 in 1995 to 8.5 per 100,000 in 2014. The standardized mortality rate fell by 70% between 1995 and 2016, from 11 to 3.3 people per 100,000. In 2015, the total inoculation rate was about 38%. According to the Vaccine Adverse Effect Reporting System, the HPV vaccine is very safe. Among almost 820,000 doses inoculated from 2010 to 2016, the number of adverse effect was 2107 (0.25%). What was learned: The policy combined HPV vaccination and national Papanicolaou test screening strategies are successful. The implementation of the act, funding allocation, information system, health education to target population and medical staff as well as media advocacy, were keys to success.
Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Efficacy and safety of BCG vaccine for control of tuberculosis in domestic livestock and wildlife
BM Buddle, HM Vordermeier, MA Chambers…
Bovine tuberculosis (TB) continues to be an intractable problem in many countries, particularly where “test and slaughter” policies cannot be implemented or where wildlife reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis infection serve as a recurrent source of infection for domestic livestock. Alternative control measures are urgently required and vaccination is a promising option. Although the M. bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been used in humans for nearly a century, its use in animals has been limited, principally as protection against TB has been incomplete and vaccination may result in animals reacting in the tuberculin skin test. Valuable insights have been gained over the past 25 years to optimise protection induced by BCG vaccine in animals and in the development of tests to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). This review examines factors affecting the efficacy of BCG vaccine in cattle, recent field trials, use of DIVA tests and the effectiveness of BCG vaccine in other domestic livestock as well as in wildlife. Oral delivery of BCG vaccine to wildlife reservoirs of infection such as European badgers, brushtail possums, wild boar and deer has been shown to induce protection against TB and could prove to be a practical means to vaccinate these species at scale. Testing of BCG vaccine in a wide range of animal species has indicated that it is safe and vaccination has the potential to be a valuable tool to assist in the control of TB in both domestic livestock and wildlife.