Willingness to Participate and Associated Factors in a Zika Vaccine Trial in Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Viruses
2018, 10(11), 648
https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/10/11

Open Access Article
Willingness to Participate and Associated Factors in a Zika Vaccine Trial in Indonesia: A Cross-Sectional Study
by Harapan Harapan, Mudatsir Mudatsir, Amanda Yufika, Yusuf Nawawi, Nur Wahyuniati, Samsul Anwar, Fitria Yusri, Novi Haryanti, Nanda Putri Wijayanti, Rizal Rizal, Devi Fitriani, Nurul Fadhliati Maulida, Muhammad Syahriza, Ikram Ikram, Try Purwo Fandoko, Muniati Syahadah, Febrivan Wahyu Asrizal, Kurnia F. Jamil, Yogambigai Rajamoorthy, Abram Luther Wagner, David Alexander Groneberg, Ulrich Kuch, Ruth Müller, R. Tedjo Sasmono and Allison Imrie
Viruses 2018, 10(11), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10110648
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 12 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 18 November 2018
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Abstract
One of the crucial steps during trials for Zika and other vaccines is to recruit participants and to understand how participants’ attitudes and sociodemographic characteristics affect willingness to participate (WTP). This study was conducted to assess WTP, its explanatory variables, and the impact of financial compensation on WTP in Indonesia. A health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in eleven regencies in the Aceh and West Sumatra provinces of Indonesia. Participants were recruited via a convenience sampling method and were interviewed. The associations between explanatory variables and WTP were assessed using a two-step logistic regression analysis. A total of 1,102 parents were approached, and of these 956 (86.8%) completed the interview and were included in analysis. Of those, 144 (15.1%) were willing to participate in a Zika vaccine trial without a financial compensation. In the multivariate analysis, WTP was tied to an age of more than 50 years old, compared to 20–29 years (odds ratio (OR): 5.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.37–10.53), to being female (OR: 2.20; 95% CI: 1.11–4.37), and to having heard about Zika (OR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.59–3.65). Participants’ WTP increased gradually with higher financial compensation. The rate of WTP increased to 62.3% at the highest offer (US$ 350.4), and those who were still unwilling to participate (37.7%) had a poorer attitude towards childhood vaccination. This study highlights that pre-existing knowledge about Zika and attitudes towards childhood vaccination are important in determining community members being willing to participate in a vaccine trial. Financial incentives are still an important factor to enhance participant recruitment during a vaccine trial.