Economic burden of dengue in Indonesia

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
http://www.plosntds.org/
(Accessed 12 Jan 2019)

Economic burden of dengue in Indonesia
Mardiati Nadjib, Ery Setiawan, Septiara Putri, Joshua Nealon, Sophie Beucher, Sri Rezeki Hadinegoro, Vetty Yulianty Permanasari, Kurnia Sari, Tri Yunis Miko Wahyono, Erna Kristin, Dewa Nyoman Wirawan, Hasbullah Thabrany
Research Article | published 10 Jan 2019 PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007038
Abstract
Background
Dengue is associated with significant economic expenditure and it is estimated that the Asia Pacific region accounts for >50% of the global cost. Indonesia has one of the world’s highest dengue burdens; Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the primary and secondary vectors. In the absence of local data on disease cost, this study estimated the annual economic burden during 2015 of both hospitalized and ambulatory dengue cases in Indonesia.
Methods
Total 2015 dengue costs were calculated using both prospective and retrospective methods using data from public and private hospitals and health centres in three provinces: Yogyakarta, Bali and Jakarta. Direct costs were extracted from billing systems and claims; a patient survey captured indirect and out-of-pocket costs at discharge and 2 weeks later. Adjustments across sites based on similar clinical practices and healthcare landscapes were performed to fill gaps in cost estimates. The national burden of dengue was extrapolated from provincial data using data from the three sites and applying an empirically-derived epidemiological expansion factor.
Results
Total direct and indirect costs per dengue case assessed at Yogyakarta, Bali and Jakarta were US$791, US$1,241 and US$1,250, respectively. Total 2015 economic burden of dengue in Indonesia was estimated at US$381.15 million which comprised US$355.2 million for hospitalized and US$26.2 million for ambulatory care cases.
Conclusion
Dengue imposes a substantial economic burden for Indonesian public payers and society. Complemented with an appropriate weighting method and by accounting for local specificities and practices, these data may support national level public health decision making for prevention/control of dengue in public health priority lists.

Author summary
Dengue, an infection transmitted by mosquitos, is a public health concern particularly in tropical/subtropical areas and the Asia Pacific region where it is associated with a significant cost to society. Indonesia has one of the world’s highest dengue burdens but Indonesia-specific data on cost are lacking. To estimate the annual economic burden of dengue in Indonesia, this study collected data from public/private hospitals and health centres in three provinces (Yogyakarta, Bali and Jakarta) during 2015. We estimated cost of illness using the societal perspective: calculations of costs included those that were directly paid by the healthcare system, as well as costs incurred by the patients (or their family/care givers) and their lost productivity. The costs from the three provinces were then used as the basis for extrapolating cost of illness in Indonesia. The authors confirmed that dengue imposed a substantial economic burden for Indonesian public payers and society. Based on 2015 data, the authors estimated total economic burden of dengue in Indonesia at US$381.15 million. Of this, US$355.2 million related to patients treated in hospitals and US$26.2 million was for patients treated in health centres. Establishing a better understanding of the burden of dengue in Indonesia will help to guide public health decision-making at a national level and support prevention and control initiatives for this disease.