Emergencies

Emergencies
 
 
POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 6 March 2019
:: On 26-27 February 2019, the Global Commission for Certification of the Eradication met at the World Health Organization in Geneva to continue its work on global certification criteria for wild poliovirus eradication and containment.  The GCC reviewed all the latest global epidemiology and examined remaining challenges in the interruption of wild polio virus. Read more here.
:: Featured on polioeradication.org: Coffee with Polio Experts— Dr Nicksy Gumede-Moeletsi, senior virologist at WHO’s Regional Office for Africa, talks about how genetic analysis of isolated polioviruses is helping strategically drive eradication efforts in Africa.
 
 
Summary of new viruses this week:
:: Pakistan – two WPV1-positive environmental samples;
:: Nigeria — one circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) case.
 
 
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GCC intensifies work on global certification criteria
Global Commission for Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (GCC) meet in Geneva to intensify its work on global certification criteria
On 26-27 February 2019, the Global Commission for Certification of Poliomyelitis Eradication (GCC) met at the World Health Organization (WHO) headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, to continue its intensified work on global certification criteria for poliomyelitis eradication and poliovirus containment.  The work of the GCC is critical to verifying the achievement of a world free of all polioviruses
 
 
The GCC reviewed the latest global epidemiology of all poliovirus transmission, examined remaining challenges such as subnational surveillance and immunity gaps, and evaluated current containment status.

The GCC expressed its concerns over the lack of progress in the interruption of transmission of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) in Pakistan and Afghanistan and the spread of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). As expressed in a recently-published letter from the four Chairs of the GPEI’s main global advisory bodies, it is essential that improvement is achieved in both routine immunization services and supplementary immunization activity (SIA) quality. Nevertheless, the GCC is continuing to accelerate its work, including taking into consideration circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs), which continue to take on added significance as the time extends since the discontinuation of type 2 poliovirus in oral polio vaccine (OPV) with consequent loss of type 2 polio immunity. The GCC is also occupied with the urgent and increasing need for effective containment of polioviruses in laboratories and vaccine manufacturing facilities.

Noting that wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) has not been isolated anywhere since November 2012, the GCC re-affirmed its decision to undertake sequential certification of WPV eradication, meaning that WPV3 will be certified as eradicated prior to WPV1.  The GCC has requested that the Director-General of WHO ask the Regional Directors of Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean respectively to confirm from their Member States that the last WPV3s in both Regions were identified more than six years ago. The GCC will review these data in conjunction with the final reports from the four Regions that have already been certified. This will permit the GCC to certify the eradication of WPV3.

The GCC noted progress in identifying the interruption of WPV1 transmission in the African Region, which will be eligible for regional certification when the African Regional Certification Commission is convinced of the evidence of absence of wild polioviruses that meets surveillance standards.

The outcomes and recommendations of the GCC will be presented to the WHO Director-General, and if accepted, incorporated into the Global Polio Eradication Initiative Strategic Plan 2019-2023.  The full report from the GCC’s meeting will be made available at www.polioeradication.org.

 

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Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies  [to 9 Mar 2019]
Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: 31: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu  3 March 2019
:: DONS – Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo   7 March 2019

Syrian Arab Republic
:: Unexploded mines pose daily risk for people in northern Syria   6 March 2019

Bangladesh – Rohingya crisis
:: Bi‐weekly Situation Report 4 – 04 March 2019

 

Myanmar – No new digest announcements identified  
Nigeria – No new digest announcements identified  
Somalia – No new digest announcements identified
South Sudan – No new digest announcements identified  
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified  

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WHO Grade 2 Emergencies  [to 9 Mar 2019]
Libya
:: WHO responds to critical health needs in southern Libya
6 March 2019 – In response to increasing violence in Sabha City, southern Libya, the World Health Organization (WHO) has delivered trauma medicines sufficient for more than 400 patients requiring trauma care to Sabha Medical Centre, Murzuq General hospital and Ghodwa field hospital. WHO has also delivered 6 incubators and 2 ventilators to the neonatal intensive care unit of Sabha Medical Centre, and pre-positioned additional trauma medicines at the Medical Supply Office in Sabha to be delivered to health facilities as needed.

Clashes between armed groups in Sabha and Murzuq in February resulted in increasing numbers of injured patients, overwhelming health facilities already facing shortages of specialists and medical supplies. The total number of casualties is 250, which includes 44 dead and 206 wounded…

Brazil (in Portugese) – No new digest announcements identified
Cameroon  – No new digest announcements identified
Central African Republic  – No new digest announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new digest announcements identified
Hurricane Irma and Maria in the Caribbean – No new digest announcements identified
Iraq – No new digest announcements identified  
MERS-CoV – No new digest announcements identified
Niger – No new digest announcements identified
occupied Palestinian territory  – No new digest announcements identified  
Sao Tome and Principe Necrotizing Cellulitis (2017) – No new digest announcements identified
Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Ukraine – No new digest announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 1 Emergencies  [to 9 Mar 2019]
Afghanistan
Chad
Indonesia – Sulawesi earthquake 2018
Kenya
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Mali
Namibia – viral hepatitis
Peru
Philippines – Tyhpoon Mangkhut
Tanzania

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WHO AFRO – Outbreaks and Emergencies Bulletin – Week 09/2019
Week 09: 25 February – 03 March 2019
The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 59 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
:: Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Measles in Madagascar
:: Lassa fever in Nigeria
:: Humanitarian crisis in Nigeria
:: Humanitarian crisis in South Sudan 

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UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic   – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

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UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
Ethiopia 
:: Ethiopia Humanitarian Bulletin Issue #4 | 17 February – 03 March 2019

HIGHLIGHTS
The Government of Ethiopia and humanitarian partners will formally launch the 2019 Ethiopia Humanitarian Response Plan (HRP) on 7 March.
Some 90,000 displaced people in Amhara region need urgent assistance.
Improved security along the OromiaSomali border is enabling humanitarian partners to move relief commodities to Dawa zone after more than a year.

Somalia 
:: Humanitarian Bulletin Somalia, 1 February – 5 March 2019

Highlights
– Dry conditions worsen across Somalia.
– Protecting livestock to save livelihoods.
– Access constraints continue.
– Redoubling efforts to End Polio Outbreaks.
– Sustained response through pooled funds.

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Editor’s Note:
We will cluster these recent emergencies as below and continue to monitor the WHO webpages for updates and key developments.

EBOLA/EVD  [to 9 Mar 2019]
http://www.who.int/ebola/en/
:: 31: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu  3 March 2019
:: DONS – Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo   7 March 2019
 
 
MERS-CoV [to 9 Mar 2019]
http://who.int/emergencies/mers-cov/en/
– No new digest announcements identified.
 
 
Yellow Fever  [to 9 Mar 2019]
http://www.who.int/csr/disease/yellowfev/en/
– No new digest announcements identified.
 
 
Zika virus  [to 9 Mar 2019]
http://www.who.int/csr/disease/zika/en/
– No new digest announcements identified.