Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Interventions in the U.S.: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

American Journal of Preventive Medicine
April 2019 Volume 56, Issue 4, p477-630

Review Articles
Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Interventions in the U.S.: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Ana M. Rodriguez, Thuy Quynh N. Do, Michael Goodman, Kathleen M. Schmeler, Sapna Kaul, Yong-Fang Kuo
Published online: February 15, 2019
Despite current recommendations, human papillomavirus vaccine uptake remains low. A systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of interventions targeting human papillomavirus vaccine initiation and completion among children, adolescents, and young adults aged 9–26 years.
Evidence acquisition
Three electronic databases (CINAHL, OVID, and Web of Science) were searched for articles published in English peer-reviewed journals between January 2006 and January 2017 of U.S. studies that evaluated intervention strategies and reported post-intervention human papillomavirus vaccine initiation or completion rates among individuals aged 9–26 years. Study characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Data were collected in 2016 and analyzed in 2017.
Evidence synthesis
Reviewers screened 983 unique titles and abstracts, read 241 full-text articles, and extracted data from 30 articles meeting the inclusion criteria (12 behavioral, ten environmental, four informational, and four combination strategies). Published EQUATOR (Enhancing the Quality and Transparency of Health Research) guidelines were used to assess study quality. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted. The meta-analyses included 17 RCTs and quasi-experiments involving 68,623 children, adolescents, and young adults. The pooled relative incidence estimates were 1.84 (95% CI=1.36, 2.48) for human papillomavirus vaccine initiation and 1.50 (95% CI=1.23, 1.83) for completion. Behavioral and informational interventions doubled human papillomavirus vaccine initiation (relative incidence estimate=2.04, 95% CI=1.36, 3.06 and relative incidence estimate=1.92, 95% CI=1.27, 2.91, respectively). Behavioral interventions increased completion by 68% (relative incidence estimate=1.68, 95% CI=1.25, 2.27).
Evidence supports behavioral interventions for increasing human papillomavirus vaccine initiation and completion. Future studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of interventions in reaching diverse populations and reducing missed opportunities for human papillomavirus vaccination.