Emergencies

Emergencies

 

POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 3 April 2019
:: The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization (SAGE) met on 2-4 April 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland. Among other immunization topics, SAGE was provided an update on the latest global epidemiology on polio eradication efforts and an overview of the GPEI Endgame Strategy 2019-2023. In addition, SAGE endorsed the guidelines for surveillance of vaccine-derived polioviruses in persons with primary immunodeficiency diseases.
:: The Pakistan Regional Polio Laboratory is nearing completion with funding from Japan International Cooperation Agency. Read more here.
:: Read about the smart interactive visualization being used for disease surveillance and routine immunization assessments for polio eradication efforts in South Sudan.

Summary of new viruses this week:
:: Afghanistan— one wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) case;
:: Pakistan –six WPV1-positive environmental samples;
:: Nigeria— two circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2)-positive environmental isolates.

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Around 9.3 million children to be vaccinated in first round of polio campaign in 2019
[WHO EMRO website]

Kabul, 1 April, 2019 – The first round of polio national immunization days began on 1 April 2019 in Afghanistan. The 5-day campaign will target over 9.3 million children under-5 years of age in all of Afghanistan’s provinces, except Bamiyan, Daikundi and Ghor provinces due to bad weather.

During the campaign about 8.4 million children aged between 6 months to 5 years will also be given vitamin A capsules.  Vitamin A helps to build a child’s immunity and reduces the risk of diarrhoea, respiratory infections and measles.

The most recent case of polio was reported from the Shahid-e-Hassas district of Uruzgan province, which permanently paralysed a 26-month-old male child. This is third case in Afghanistan in 2019; 2 other cases were reported from Kandahar province.

Dr Feroz emphasized the importance of the campaign and called on all people to work together to eradicate polio. “This is the first national campaign this year and we couldn’t stress this enough, but please open your doors when the vaccinators come knocking, bring out your children, protect them against this incurable disease.”

Dr Peeperkorn highlighted the effort to eradicate polio globally, calling on all partners to “keep the eyes on the prize, as humanity is on the verge of one of the greatest public health achievement in history – eradicating polio. Afghanistan can end polio for the world, so let us work together, keep our neutrality, work with all layers of society and achieve our goal together.”

Polio is incurable and can paralyse children for life. The only way to prevent polio is to vaccinate all children with 2 drops of polio vaccine, every time it is offered, until they are 5 years of age. Children are protected more with every additional dose of oral polio vaccine. Repeated vaccines help to build strong immunity of the child and the whole community.

In addition to highlighting the importance of eradicating polio, all parties reaffirmed their commitment to strengthen routine immunization, stressing that expanding access to immunization is vital for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, poverty reduction and universal health coverage.

The polio vaccine is safe and effective and has no side-effects. It has been strongly endorsed by prominent local and international Islamic scholars. It is critical to vaccinate all children under 5 across the country to stop the virus, including all sick children and newborns, whose immunity is weak against this disease.

[Editor’s Note: We recognize serious inaccuracies about OPV in this WHO EMRO announcement].

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Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies  [to 6 Apr 2019]
Cyclone Idai
:: Cholera vaccination campaign begins in Mozambique 3 April 2019

Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Youth speaking to youth about dodging bullets and Ebola in Democratic Republic of the Congo  April 2019
:: 35: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu  2 April 2019
:: DONs – Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo   4 April 2019

Syrian Arab Republic
::  Al-Hol Camp, Al-Hasakeh Governorate health situation report  1 April 2019

Bangladesh – Rohingya crisis – No new digest announcements identified
Myanmar  – No new digest announcements identified
Nigeria – No new digest announcements identified
Somalia – No new digest announcements identified
South Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen  – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 2 Emergencies  [to 6 Apr 2019]
Iraq
:: Vaccination campaign against measles, mumps and rubella concludes in Iraq 1 April 2019

occupied Palestinian territory 
:: ·  Mobile clinic brings mammography services to remote communities in the West Bank
April 2019

Libya
:: Workshop reviews community health workers’ training modules for adaption for Libya
3 April 2019

Zimbabwe
:: Zimbabwe Launches Mental Health Strategy   1 April 2019

Brazil (in Portugese) – No new digest announcements identified
Cameroon  – No new digest announcements identified
Central African Republic  – No new digest announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new digest announcements identified
Hurricane Irma and Maria in the Caribbean – No new digest announcements identified
MERS-CoV – No new digest announcements identified
Niger – No new digest announcements identified
Sao Tome and Principe Necrotizing Cellulitis (2017) – No new digest announcements identified
Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Ukraine – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 1 Emergencies  [to 6 Apr 2019]
Afghanistan
:: Around 9.3 million children to be vaccinated in first round of polio campaign in 2019
1 April 2019

Chad  – No new digest announcements identified
Indonesia – Sulawesi earthquake 2018  – No new digest announcements identified
Kenya   – No new digest announcements identified
Lao People’s Democratic Republic  – No new digest announcements identified
Mali  – No new digest announcements identified
Namibia – viral hepatitis  – No new digest announcements identified
Peru  – No new digest announcements identified
Philippines – Tyhpoon Mangkhut  – No new digest announcements identified
Tanzania  – No new digest announcements identified

 

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WHO AFRO – Outbreaks and Emergencies Bulletin
Week 13: 25 – 31 March 2019
The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 65 events in the region. This week’s edition covers key new and ongoing events, including:
:: Response to the tropical cyclone in southern Africa
:: Ebola virus disease outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Meningitis outbreak in Togo
:: Lassa fever outbreak in Liberia.

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UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic   
:: Humanitarian Update Syrian Arab Republic – Issue 02 | 4 April 2019

FIGURES
People in need of humanitarian assistance 13M
People in acute need of humanitarian assistance 5.2M
Internally displaced people (as of August) 6.2M
Returnees (January – December 2018) 1.4 M
People in need in UN-declared hardto-reach areas 1.1M

Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

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UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
Ethiopia 
:: Ethiopia Humanitarian Bulletin Issue #6 | 18 – 31 March 2019

 
Somalia 
:: Somalia Humanitarian Bulletin, 1 March – 3 April 2019

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WHO & Regional Offices [to 6 Apr 2019]
4 April 2019   News release
Uneven access to health services drives life expectancy gaps: WHO

3 April 2019   News release
Cholera vaccination campaign begins in Mozambique

3 April 2019   News release
1 in 4 health care facilities lacks basic water services – UNICEF, WHO

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Weekly Epidemiological Record, 5 April 2019, vol. 94, 14/15 (pp. 169–188)
:: Surveillance to track progress towards polio eradication worldwide, 2017–2018
:: Epidemic meningitis control in countries in the African meningitis belt, 2018

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GIN March 2019  pdf, 2.89Mb
2 April 2019

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WHO Regional Offices
Selected Press Releases, Announcements
WHO African Region AFRO
:: South Africa attends capacity building Workshop to accelerate implementation of the Regional Oral Health Strategy 2016-2025  04 April 2019
:: Moving towards malaria elimination in Namibia  04 April 2019
:: Youth speaking to youth about dodging bullets and Ebola in Democratic Republic of the Congo  03 April 2019
:: Cholera Vaccination Campaign Begins in Mozambique  03 April 2019
:: WHO scales up health response to Cyclone Idai in Mozambique  01 April 2019
 
 
WHO Region of the Americas PAHO
:: World Health Day: PAHO calls for equitable access to health care (04/03/2019)
:: New report by PAHO and PATH seeks to improve vaccine programs through effective data use (04/02/2019)
 
 
WHO South-East Asia Region SEARO
– No new digest announcements identified
 
 
WHO European Region EURO
:: Primary health care helps extend sexual and reproductive health services in North Macedonia 05-04-2019
:: Out-of-pocket payments for health, particularly for medicines, are unaffordable for many in Europe 05-04-2019

 
WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region EMRO
:: Vaccination campaign against measles, mumps and rubella concludes in Iraq  1 April 2019
:: Afghanistan to vaccinate 9.3 million children against polio  1 April 2019

WHO Western Pacific Region
:: Immunization gaps threaten gains on measles   29 March 2019   News release
Measles outbreaks in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region are putting babies, children and young people at risk and threatening progress towards wiping out the disease…

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CDC/ACIP [to 6 Apr 2019]
http://www.cdc.gov/media/index.html
https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/index.html

MMWR News Synopsis for Friday, April 5, 2019
Tracking Progress Toward Polio Eradication — Worldwide, 2017–2018
Poliovirus outbreaks are primarily detected by surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children under 15 years old and testing stool specimens for wild poliovirus (WPV) and vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). A new CDC report finds that the majority of the high-priority countries evaluated for polio surveillance have met their national AFP surveillance targets, but there was substantial subnational variation in surveillance performance. The report presents 2017-2018 poliovirus surveillance data, with focus on 31 countries in endemic and polio-free World Health Organization regions identified as surveillance-high-priority countries due to “high risk of poliovirus transmission and limited capacity to adequately address those risks.” These surveillance systems need continued strengthening through monitoring, supervision, and improvements in specimen collection and transport to provide sufficient evidence for interruption of poliovirus circulation.