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DRC – Ebola
WHO Adapts Ebola Vaccination Strategy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to Account for Insecurity and Community Feedback
7 May 2019 News release Geneva
WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) today issued new recommendations to address vaccination challenges in the ongoing Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
The recommendations include endorsing operational adjustments that make the vaccination process faster and adjusting the dosage based on available efficacy data. The SAGE also suggested expanding the population eligible for vaccination with rVSV-ZEBOV-GP (developed by Merck & Co., Inc), introducing an additional experimental vaccine (developed by Johnson & Johnson), and redoubling ongoing efforts to train nurses, doctors and medical students from Ebola-affected communities to work on vaccination teams.
Vaccination saving lives but challenges remain
More than 111 000 people have been vaccinated in the DRC since the outbreak was declared in August 2018. However, despite the use of a highly efficacious vaccine, the number of new cases continues to rise, in part due to repeated incidents of violence affecting the ability of response teams to immediately identify and create vaccination rings around all people at risk of contracting Ebola.
“We know that vaccination is saving lives in this outbreak,” said WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. “We also know that we still face challenges in making sure the contacts of every case receive the vaccine as soon as possible. These recommendations account for ongoing insecurity and incorporate feedback from experts and from the affected communities that will help us continue to adapt the response.”
Professor Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Director of the INRB and Principle Investigator for the rVSV ZEBOV Ebola vaccine protocol, also welcomed the recommendations.
“The DRC Presidential Commission on Ebola highly appreciates the new SAGE recommendations for the rVSV- ZEBOV GP vaccine,” said Professor Muyembe. “This will allow us to address the increasing demand for this vaccine from the communities. In my role as the Principal Investigator of this study, I will work with the teams to ensure the recommendations are implemented as soon as possible.”
Adapting ring vaccination operational approaches: pop-up and targeted geographic vaccination
The SAGE endorsed the use of pop-up and targeted geographic approaches to vaccination when appropriate. These vaccination approaches have already been used successfully in the field by WHO to make the ring vaccination process faster, more secure, and more responsive to community feedback.
In view of the fact that insecurity limits the time that vaccination teams can spend in some communities, and in response to community requests, SAGE recommended steps to streamline implementation of the vaccination protocol. SAGE also endorsed a modified follow-up for safety monitoring.
Adjusting rVSV ZEBOV GP vaccine dosage and eligible population
In addition to vaccinating contacts and contacts of contacts, SAGE now also recommends vaccinating those who could be part of tertiary chains of transmission, such as people in villages and neighborhoods where cases have been reported within the past 21 days. SAGE noted that increasing access to vaccination in the broader community may help enhance community acceptance of the vaccine and other control measures.
SAGE also recommended adjusting the dose of the vaccine currently being used.
“The SAGE emphasized that ring vaccination of contacts and contacts of contacts continues to be the preferred strategy. However, the Working Group recognized that the current emergency and the available evidence called for a dose-adjusted approach to ensure vaccine continues to be available and offered to individuals at greatest risk of Ebola,” said Helen Rees, Co-Chair of the SAGE Ebola Vaccines Working Group.
People at highest risk (contacts and contacts of contacts) will now receive 0.5ml of vaccine instead of 1ml. This dosage is equal to that used in the successful Ebola ça suffit ring vaccination trial in Guinea in 2015, and is expected to provide the same level of protection.
Those for whom a rapid evolution of the immune response is less critical (people who are considered lower-risk / those who could be potentially involved in tertiary transmission) will receive 0.2ml (1/5 of the current dose).
Use of additional Ebola vaccines: plans for deployment of an additional vaccine underway
The SAGE reiterated its previous stance stating the need to assess additional Ebola vaccines. SAGE now additionally recommends offering an alternative vaccine (other than rVSV-ZEBOV-GP) to those at lower risk within affected health areas…
Disease Outbreak News (DONs)
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
9 May 2019
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak response this past week continues to be hampered by insecurity. On 3 May in Katwa, a Safe and Dignified Burial (SDB) team was violently attacked following the completion of a burial for a deceased EVD case. In Butembo and surrounding health zones, response activities were repeatedly halted due to a number of serious security incidents taking place from 4-6 May. On 8 May, a group of over 50 armed militia infiltrated the city centre. Security forces repelled the attack following intense gunfire in close proximity to staff accommodations. Although activities resumed on 9 May, after almost five consecutive days of suspension, threats of further attacks against EVD response teams and facilities remain prevalent.
These security incidents, and especially the resultant lack of access to EVD affected communities, remain a major impediment to the response, with teams unable to perform robust surveillance nor deliver much needed treatment and immunisations. The ongoing violent attacks sow fear, perpetuate mistrust, and further compound the multitude of challenges already faced by frontline healthcare workers. Without commitment from all groups to cease these attacks, it is unlikely that this EVD outbreak can remain successfully contained in North Kivu and Ituri provinces…