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Current Tropical Medicine Reports
First Online: 08 May 2019
Changing Epidemiology, Treatment, and Vaccine Update on Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika Viruses
A Sanyaolu, O Ayodele, L Likaj, A Marinkovic, J Locke…
Purpose of Review
Now more than ever, regions other than Africa and Asia, such as the USA, are being affected by the rising epidemic of vector-borne illnesses, specifically Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika viruses; this has prompted this review aimed at discussing the changing epidemiology of the three diseases as well as the current treatment and vaccines in development to control the diseases. With the viruses being spread through a variety of ways, including, but not limited to, mosquito bites, fetal transmission, sexual contact, breast milk, and saliva, there is no doubt that more preventative measures are required.
The changing epidemiology of the three viruses is already creating an impact, with the spread of Dengue in 2009 in Florida, to the 2013 spread of Chikungunya through the Caribbean, and now, the Zika virus making its mark on the tropics with major concerns of it spreading to the Western Hemisphere, including the USA. Although, they are all vector-borne illnesses, each carries its own clinical presentations that sometimes make it hard to diagnose. Collectively, there are no current vaccines or antiviral drugs against these three viruses, and with no sign of the spread slowing down, more geographic regions are in danger of being hit by these diseases in the near future.
As the evolving world for the three viruses continues due to changes in epidemiology, there is a dire need to develop vaccines for each of the three diseases that will target a variety of mechanisms to help fight the transmission and provide succor to affected communities. Public health preventive strategies need to be employed for proper actions to be take aimed at preventing viral transmission and ultimately, helping to fight this changing epidemiology of vector-borne diseases.