Rockland county’s proposed ban against unvaccinated minors: Balancing disease control, trust, and liberty

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 30 Pages 3933-4232 (9 July 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/29

 

Discussion No access
Rockland county’s proposed ban against unvaccinated minors: Balancing disease control, trust, and liberty
Justin Bernstein, Taylor A. Holroyd, Jessica E. Atwell, Joseph Ali, Rupali J. Limaye
Pages 3933-3935

Adjuvanted leptospiral vaccines: Challenges and future development of new leptospirosis vaccines

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 30 Pages 3933-4232 (9 July 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/29

 

Review article Abstract only
Adjuvanted leptospiral vaccines: Challenges and future development of new leptospirosis vaccines
Aline F. Teixeira, Luis G.V. Fernandes, Maria F. Cavenague, Maria B. Takahashi, … Ana L.T.O. Nascimento
Pages 3961-3973

Adjuvanted leptospiral vaccines: Challenges and future development of new leptospirosis vaccines

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 30 Pages 3933-4232 (9 July 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/29

 

Review article Abstract only
Adjuvanted leptospiral vaccines: Challenges and future development of new leptospirosis vaccines
Aline F. Teixeira, Luis G.V. Fernandes, Maria F. Cavenague, Maria B. Takahashi, … Ana L.T.O. Nascimento
Pages 3961-3973

Using economic and social data to improve veterinary vaccine development: Learning lessons from human vaccinology

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 30 Pages 3933-4232 (9 July 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/29

 

Review article Open access
Using economic and social data to improve veterinary vaccine development: Learning lessons from human vaccinology
Lian F. Thomas, Camille Bellet, Jonathan Rushton
Pages 3974-3980

Measuring the impact of influenza vaccination on healthcare worker absenteeism in the context of a province-wide mandatory vaccinate-or-mask policy

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 30 Pages 3933-4232 (9 July 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/29

 

Research article Open access
Measuring the impact of influenza vaccination on healthcare worker absenteeism in the context of a province-wide mandatory vaccinate-or-mask policy
Michelle Murti, Michael Otterstatter, Alison Orth, Robert Balshaw, … Bonnie Henry
Pages 4001-4007

Measuring the impact of a mandatory province-wide vaccinate-or-mask policy on healthcare worker absenteeism in British Columbia, Canada

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 30 Pages 3933-4232 (9 July 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/29

 

Research article Open access
Measuring the impact of a mandatory province-wide vaccinate-or-mask policy on healthcare worker absenteeism in British Columbia, Canada
Michelle Murti, Michael Otterstatter, Alison Orth, Robert Balshaw, … Bonnie Henry
Pages 4008-4014

Are providers’ recommendation and knowledge associated with uptake of optional vaccinations among children? A multilevel analysis in three provinces of China

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 30 Pages 3933-4232 (9 July 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/29

 

Research article Abstract only
Are providers’ recommendation and knowledge associated with uptake of optional vaccinations among children? A multilevel analysis in three provinces of China
Jie Chang, Zhiyuan Hou, Hai Fang, Qingyue Meng
Pages 4133-4139

Home-based records’ quality and validity of caregivers’ recall of children’s vaccination in Lebanon

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 30 Pages 3933-4232 (9 July 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/29

 

Research article Open access
Home-based records’ quality and validity of caregivers’ recall of children’s vaccination in Lebanon
Ziad Mansour, Lina Brandt, Racha Said, Kamal Fahmy, … M. Carolina Danovaro-Holliday
Pages 4177-4183

New Approaches to Value Assessment: Towards More Informed Pricing in Healthcare

Value in Health
June 2019 Volume 22, Issue 6, Supplement, S1-S32
https://www.valueinhealthjournal.com/issue/S1098-3015(19)X0013-3

 

New Approaches to Value Assessment: Towards More Informed Pricing in Healthcare
On October 19, 2018, the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) hosted its Third Annual ISPOR Summit in Washington, DC, titled New Approaches to Value Assessment: Towards More Informed Pricing in Healthcare. This summit provided a forum for stakeholders to discuss the challenges and opportunities surrounding value frameworks in working toward sustainable health systems.

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Available online 22 June 2019
The 2019 Pan American games: Communicable disease risks and travel medicine advice for visitors to Peru – Recommendations from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI)
V Gallego, G Berberian, H Siu, S Verbanaz…
Abstract
The next Pan American Games will be held in Peru in the period July–August 2019. Around 6680 participants from 41 countries are expected to take part in the event. There will be a total of 62 sport disciplines. This event poses specific challenges, given its size and the diversity of attendees. Such gatherings also have potential for the transmission of imported or endemic communicable diseases, including measles in view of the global outbreak situation, but also tropical endemic diseases. In anticipation of increased travel, a panel of experts from the Latin American Society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI) developed the current recommendations taking into consideration the epidemiology and risks of the main communicable diseases at potential destinations in Peru, recommended immunizations and other preventives measures. These recommendations can be used as a basis for advice for travelers and travel medicine practitioners. Mosquito-borne infections also pose a challenge. Although Lima is malaria free, travelers visiting Peruvian high-risk areas for malaria should be assessed regarding the need for chemoprophylaxis. Advice on the correct timing and use of repellents and other personal protection measures is key to preventing vector-borne infections. Other important recommendations for travelers should focus on preventing water- and food-borne diseases including travelers’ diarrhea. This paper addresses pre-travel, preventive strategies to reduce the risk of acquiring communicable diseases during the Pan American Games and also reviews the spectrum of endemic infections in Lima and Peru to facilitate the recognition and management of infectious diseases in travelers returning to their countries of origin.

Media/Policy Watch

Media/Policy Watch
This watch section is intended to alert readers to substantive news, analysis and opinion from the general media and selected think tanks and similar organizations on vaccines, immunization, global public health and related themes. Media Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues CVEP is actively tracking. This section will grow from an initial base of newspapers, magazines and blog sources, and is segregated from Journal Watch above which scans the peer-reviewed journal ecology.
We acknowledge the Western/Northern bias in this initial selection of titles and invite suggestions for expanded coverage. We are conservative in our outlook in adding news sources which largely report on primary content we are already covering above. Many electronic media sources have tiered, fee-based subscription models for access. We will provide full-text where content is published without restriction, but most publications require registration and some subscription level.

 

The Atlantic
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/
Accessed 29 Jun 2019
Politics
How a Forgotten White House Team Gained Power in the Trump Era [fetal tissue research]
Changes in the makeup of the Domestic Policy Council have already had broad national effects.
Elaina Plott Peter Nicholas
Jun 27, 2019

 

BBC
http://www.bbc.co.uk/
Accessed 29 Jun 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

The Economist
http://www.economist.com/
Accessed 29 Jun 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

Financial Times
http://www.ft.com/home/uk
Accessed 29 Jun 2019
Why rich countries are more prone to ‘vaccine hesitancy’
…The richer countries are, the less their citizens believe that vaccines are safe. In the US and Canada, only 72 per cent believe vaccines are safe. In the northern European arc from Ireland and the UK…
Michael Skapinker June 26, 2019

The rise of the anti-vaxxers is bad news for business
…not. Access to vaccines is a problem in developing nations but in the US and EU the issue is vaccine hesitancy, said by the World Health Organization to be a top-10 public health threat, and fuelled by…
Myriam Sidibe June 24, 2019

 

Forbes
http://www.forbes.com/
Accessed 29 Jun 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

Foreign Affairs
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/
Accessed 29 Jun 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

Foreign Policy
http://foreignpolicy.com/
Accessed 29 Jun 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

The Guardian
http://www.guardiannews.com/
Accessed 29 Jun 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

New Yorker
http://www.newyorker.com/
Accessed 29 Jun 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/
Asia Pacific
China Tightens Vaccine Management After Scandals
China passed a law on Saturday tightening the supervision and management of how vaccines enter the market, requiring stricter management of their production, research and distribution, after a series of safety scandals.
By Reuters
June 29

Health
HPV Vaccines Are Reducing Infections, Warts — and Probably Cancer
An analysis covering 66 million young people has found plummeting rates of precancerous lesions and genital warts after vaccination against the human papillomavirus.
By Donald G. McNeil Jr.
June 27

 

Health
US Vaccine Panel Downgrades Pneumonia Shot Recommendation
A scientific panel has downgraded its recommendation that all retirement-age Americans get a top-selling vaccination against bacteria that can cause pneumonia, meningitis and other illnesses.
By The Associated Press
June 26

Health
Vaccine Panel Gives Nod to HPV Shots for Men Up to Age 26
A vaccine against cervical and other cancers should be recommended for both men and women up to age 26, a U.S. government advisory panel decided Wednesday.
By The Associated Press
June 26

U.S.
U.S. Records 33 New Measles Cases, Mostly in New York State
Thirty-three new measles cases were recorded in the United States last week, most of them in New York, federal health officials said on Monday, bringing the number of confirmed cases this year to 1,077 in the worst U.S. outbreak of the virus since 1992.
By Reuters

 

Washington Post
http://www.washingtonpost.com/
[No new, unique, relevant content]

Think Tanks et al

Think Tanks et al

Brookings
http://www.brookings.edu/
Accessed 29 Jun 2019
Future Development
How do major health donors prepare for country exits?
Kaci Kennedy McDade, Osondu Ogbuoji, Marco Schäferhoff, and Gavin Yamey
Friday, June 28, 2019

 

Center for Global Development
http://www.cgdev.org/page/press-center
Publication
Global Immunization and Gavi: Five Priorities for the Next Five Years
Publication
6/24/19
Gavi’s mission—saving children’s lives and protecting people’s health by increasing equitable use of vaccines—remains highly relevant. Gavi 5.0 needs a new model to deliver on its laudable mission. This overview note lays out five challenges and summarizes some of our ideas to address them; backing up each is a standalone note that provides greater detail and options for action.

Publication
Putting Global Health Security on the Gavi 5.0 Agenda
6/24/19
In this note, we explore certain global health security considerations and propose procedural improvements or adaptations to Gavi’s mandate to better support the needs of country governments and other partners.

 

CSIS
https://www.csis.org/
Accessed 29 Jun 2019
[No new relevant content]

 

Council on Foreign Relations
http://www.cfr.org/
Accessed 29 Jun 2019
[No new relevant content]

 

Kaiser Family Foundation
https://www.kff.org/search/?post_type=press-release
Accessed 29 Jun 2019
[No new relevant content]

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review :: 22 June 2019

.– Request an Email Summary: Vaccines and Global Health : The Week in Review is published as a single email summary, scheduled for release each Saturday evening before midnight (EDT in the U.S.). If you would like to receive the email version, please send your request to david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org.

 pdf version A pdf of the current issue is available here: Vaccines and Global Health_The Week in Review_22 Jun 2019

– blog edition: comprised of the approx. 35+ entries posted below.

– Twitter:  Readers can also follow developments on twitter: @vaxethicspolicy.
.
– Links:  We endeavor to test each link as we incorporate it into any post, but recognize that some links may become “stale” as publications and websites reorganize content over time. We apologize in advance for any links that may not be operative. We believe the contextual information in a given post should allow retrieval, but please contact us as above for assistance if necessary.

Support this knowledge-sharing service: Your financial support helps us cover our costs and to address a current shortfall in our annual operating budget. Click here to donate and thank you in advance for your contribution.

.
David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

World survey reveals people trust experts but want to know more about science

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

World survey reveals people trust experts but want to know more about science
The world’s biggest survey into public attitudes to health and science publishes today, revealing high overall global trust in doctors, nurses and scientists, and high confidence in vaccines.
News | 19 June 2019
Wellcome Global Monitor also shows, however, that half of the world’s population say they know little – if anything – about science. And almost one in five feel excluded from the benefits of science.
The survey asks more than 140,000 people, aged 15 and older, in over 140 countries, how they think and feel about health and science.
It is the first global survey of its kind and highlights questions that need to be answered to ensure science and health research benefits everyone equally, wherever they are in the world. It also reveals attitudes about science that are important to improving global health, including a complex picture of confidence in vaccines in high-income countries.
Dr Jeremy Farrar, Director of Wellcome, which commissioned and funded the report, says: “Wellcome Global Monitor presents an unprecedented view of the relationship between science and society worldwide. No matter how great your idea, how exciting your new treatment, or how robust your science, it must be accepted by the people who stand to benefit from it. Vaccines, for example, are one of our most powerful public health tools, and we need people to have confidence in them if they are to be most effective.”
Key findings from Wellcome Global Monitor
:: Three-quarters of the world’s population trust doctors and nurses more than anyone else for health advice.
:: Globally, around eight in 10 people agree vaccines are safe, and nine in 10 people worldwide say their children have been vaccinated.
:: People living in high-income countries have the lowest confidence in vaccines.
:: In most parts of the world, higher confidence in health systems, governments and scientists is a sign of high trust in vaccines – but the picture is more complicated in Europe.
:: In almost every region of the world men are significantly more likely to say they have a good level of understanding of science compared with women.

:: Read the report online
:: Watch a recording of the launch event (op

 

Wellcome Global Monitor highlights
More than three-quarters of the world’s population agree that vaccines are safe and effective
:: Worldwide, 79% of people agree that vaccines are safe and 84% agree that they are effective.
:: Trust in vaccines tends to be strongly linked to trust in scientists and medical professionals; people who have strong trust in scientists overall are more trusting of vaccines, and vice versa.
:: Bangladesh and Rwanda have the strongest confidence in vaccines – with almost all people in both countries agreeing vaccines are safe, effective and important for children to have. Rwanda also has the highest trust in their healthcare system, at 97% – compared to a global average of 76%.
:: However, around a fifth of people in Europe either disagree or are unsure of whether vaccines are safe. This is despite 86% trusting doctors and nurses and 21% showing high trust in scientists.
:: The lowest confidence levels in relation to vaccines are in Western Europe where more than one in five (22%) of people disagree that vaccines are safe, and in Eastern Europe where 17% disagree that vaccines are effective.
:: France has the lowest levels of trust in vaccines globally: a third (33%) of its inhabitants disagree that vaccines are safe and a tenth (10%) disagree they are important for children to have.

 

Most parents say their children are vaccinated – and most adults agree they are important
:: 92% of parents worldwide say their children have received a vaccine to prevent them from getting childhood diseases.
:: 92% of adults globally, including those who do not have children, agree vaccines are important for children to have.
:: But worldwide 6% of parents say their children are unvaccinated, representing more than 188 million parents globally.
:: The countries with the highest numbers of parents claiming to not vaccinate their children are China (9%), Austria (8%) and Japan (7%).

Charlie Weller, Head of Vaccines at Wellcome, says: “It is reassuring that almost all parents worldwide are vaccinating their children. However, there are pockets of lower confidence in vaccines across the world and we cannot afford to be complacent. To ensure society gets the full benefit of vaccines, we need to make sure that people have confidence in both the safety and effectiveness of vaccines and understand more about the complex reasons why this is not always the case.”

New Multi-Partner Trust Fund launched to combat Antimicrobial Resistance globally

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

New Multi-Partner Trust Fund launched to combat Antimicrobial Resistance globally
In a major boost  to combat one of the gravest risks to global human health security,   a dedicated funding vehicle allowing national, regional and global partners to devote resources to accelerate global action against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) was unveiled here today at a Ministerial Conference.

Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 19 June 2019 – The Tripartite – a joint effort by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Health Organization (WHO), launched the AMR Multi-Partner Trust Fund, which is being supported by an initial contribution of $5 million from the Government of the Netherlands.
The AMR Trust Fund has a five-year scope, through 2024, and aims to scale up efforts to support countries to counter the immediate threat of AMR, arguably the most complex threat to global health.

Antimicrobial resistance refers to the natural ability of bacteria and other microbes to develop resistance to the medicines we use to treat them, and the process is accelerated by inappropriate or excessive use of pharmaceutical products designed to kill unwanted pathogens in humans, animals and crops. In particular, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics in human and animal health is fueling resistance.

The rise of AMR, poses a threat described as a “silent tsunami”. Drug-resistant microorganisms now account for an estimated 700,000 deaths a year, a figure that could increase to 10 million deaths each year if no action is taken.

 

…Funding appeal
The immediate funding appeal is for $70 million, to be used to support countries and the implementation of the Tripartite’s AMR Workplan 2019-2020, particularly in providing technical support to countries designing National Action Plans on AMR and to scale up local action.

Prominent among the AMR Trust Fund’s ultimate desired outcomes is a world where infectious diseases can continue to be treated with effective and safe antimicrobials and one in which resistance is monitored and controlled at a slower pace. The pathway to that success entails activities ranging from awareness raising and the drafting of national action plans to surveillance of AMR trends and better ensuring responsible antimicrobial sales and use patterns.

Inaction, due to policy or implementation inadequacies, threatens to make common infections more difficult to treat and lifesaving medical procedures and treatments riskier to perform.

Inaction could also raise food insecurity and rural poverty, when animal illnesses can no longer be effectively treated using veterinary medicines.

The AMR Trust Fund provides a joint mechanism for clear attribution and transparency of all sources of finance, while its activities will be based on the application of best practices, scaling up activities that have worked and innovative approaches to ensure that today’s cures are available for future generations.

Note:
The UN Multi-Partner Trust Fund Office, the UN center of expertise in pooled funding mechanisms, will act as trustee of the Fund. The UN MPTF Office, acting as an independent trustee, will provide real-time information on contributions and use of resources of donor contributions through the MPTF Office Gateway (mptf.undp.org).

1 in 3 people globally do not have access to safe drinking water – UNICEF, WHO

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

1 in 3 people globally do not have access to safe drinking water – UNICEF, WHO
New report on inequalities in access to water, sanitation and hygiene also reveals more than half of the world does not have access to safe sanitation services.
18/06/2019
NEW YORK/GENEVA, 18 JUNE 2019 – Billions of people around the world are continuing to suffer from poor access to water, sanitation and hygiene, according to a new report by UNICEF and the World Health Organization. Some 2.2 billion people around the world do not have safely managed* drinking water services, 4.2 billion people do not have safely managed sanitation services, and 3 billion lack basic** handwashing facilities.

The Joint Monitoring Programme report, Progress on drinking water, sanitation and hygiene: 2000-2017: Special focus on inequalities finds that, while significant progress has been made toward achieving universal access to basic water, sanitation and hygiene, there are huge gaps in the quality of services provided.

The report reveals that 1.8 billion people have gained access to basic drinking water services since 2000, but there are vast inequalities in the accessibility, availability and quality of these services. It is estimated that 1 in 10 people (785 million) still lack basic services, including the 144 million who drink untreated surface water. The data shows that 8 in 10 people living in rural areas lacked access to these services and in one in four countries with estimates for different wealth groups, coverage of basic services among the richest was at least twice as high as among the poorest.

“Countries must double their efforts on sanitation or we will not reach universal access by 2030,” said Dr Maria Neira, WHO Director, Department of Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health. “If countries fail to step up efforts on sanitation, safe water and hygiene, we will continue to live with diseases that should have been long ago consigned to the history books: diseases like diarrhoea, cholera, typhoid, hepatitis A and neglected tropical diseases including trachoma, intestinal worms and schistosomiasis. Investing in water, sanitation and hygiene is cost-effective and good for society in so many ways. It is an essential foundation for good health.”

The report also says that 2.1 billion people have gained access to basic sanitation services since 2000 but in many parts of the world the wastes produced are not safely managed. It also reveals that 2 billion people still lack basic sanitation, among whom 7 out of 10 live in rural areas and one third live in the Least Developed Countries.

Since 2000, the proportion of the population practicing open defecation has been halved, from 21 per cent to 9 per cent, and 23 countries have achieved near elimination, meaning less than 1 per cent of the population is practicing open defecation. Yet, 673 million people still practice open defecation, and they are increasingly concentrated in ‘high burden’ countries***.  Worse, in 39 countries, the number of people practicing open defecation actually increased, the majority of which are in sub-Saharan Africa where many countries have experienced strong population growth over this period.

Finally, the report highlights new data showing 3 billion people lack basic handwashing facilities with soap and water at home in 2017. It also shows that nearly three quarters of the population of the Least Developed Countries did not have basic handwashing facilities. Every year, 297 000 children under 5 years die due to diarrhea linked to inadequate WASH. Poor sanitation and contaminated water are also linked to transmission of diseases such as cholera, dysentery, hepatitis A, and typhoid

*Safely managed drinking water and sanitation services: Drinking water from sources located on premises, free from contamination and available when needed, and using hygienic toilets from which wastes are treated and disposed of safely.
**Basic services: Having a protected drinking water source that takes less than thirty minutes to collect water from, using an improved toilet or latrine that does not have to be shared with other households, and having handwashing facilities with soap and water in the home.
***High burden countries: More than 5 per cent of the population practiced open defecation in 2017 include: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Chad, China, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan Philippines, Sudan, South Sudan, Togo, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen.

DRC – Ebola/Measles/Cholera

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

DRC – Ebola/Measles/Cholera

WHO flags critical funding gap, calls for political parties to join fight against Ebola
WHO Director-General briefs Members States on situation in DRC and appeals for funding for the Ebola response
19 June 2019 News release Geneva
The Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo will only end with bipartisan political cooperation and community ownership, according to the World Health Organization’s Director-General, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. He was speaking to Member States in Geneva after returning from a visit to DRC, where he reviewed the health response and met with leaders from multiple sectors to galvanize their commitment. The organization is also facing a severe funding gap for the response.

Political cooperation must come from across party lines and across borders,” said Dr Tedros. “Bipartisan political leadership in DRC is the only way that communities will eventually understand the threat of Ebola and take ownership in ending the outbreak. Meanwhile, other countries have a global responsibility to support the dedicated health responders—from DRC, from across Africa and across the world—who are bravely working to save lives.”

WHO’s funding needs for the response are US$98 million, of which US$44 million have been received, leaving a gap of US$54 million. The funding shortfall is immediate and critical: if the funds are not received, WHO will be unable to sustain the response at the current scale. Other partners are also facing shortfalls that have led some to reduce or stop operations. The response risks being driven by decisions related to financial capacity rather than operational needs…

Disease Outbreak News (DONs)
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
20 June 2019
his week saw a continued, gradual decrease in the number of new Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases from the hotspots of Katwa and Butembo compared to the previous weeks. However, these encouraging signs are offset by a marked increase in case incidence in Mabalako Health Zone, and especially in Aloya Health Area (Figure 1). While the spread of EVD to new geographic areas remains low, in the health zones of Bunia, Lubero, Komanda and Rwampara, recent reintroduction events illustrate the high risks in previously affected areas. Along with the rise in cases in Mabalako, there was also an accompanying increase in healthcare worker (HCW) and nosocomial infections. These findings highlight the ongoing need to comprehensively strengthen the infection prevention and control measures in the various healthcare facilities operating in these areas. The occurrence of EVD infections in these health areas also place a strain on the already limited security resources needed to facilitate access for effective response activities to continue….

Emergencies

Emergencies

POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 19 June 2019
:: In Angola, a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) has been confirmed.  See ‘Central Africa’ section below for more information.
:: In the Horn of Africa, a cVDPV2 case has been detected in Somali province, Ethiopia, linked to the ongoing cVDPV2 outbreak affecting the region (notably Somalia).  Since detection of the cVDPVs in the Horn of Africa in 2018, Ethiopia had declared these outbreaks – together with the Ministries of Health of Kenya and Somalia – to be a regional public health emergency and has been participating in regional outbreak response.
:: In Papua New Guinea, more than one million children are to be vaccinated against measles-rubella and polio.  More.  To mark the launch of the campaign, the Honorable Prime Minister James Marape personally administered polio vaccine at a launch ceremony.  More.

Summary of new viruses this week:
:: Pakistan – two WPV1 cases and one WPV1-positive environmental sample;
:: Nigeria – five circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) positive environmental samples;
:: Ethiopia – one cVDPV2 case;
:: Somalia – one cVDPV2 isolated from a healthy community contact; and,
:: Iran – one WPV1-positive environmental sample.

::::::
::::::

Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies [to 22 Jun 2019]

Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: WHO flags critical funding gap, calls for political parties to join fight against Ebola 19 June 2019
:: 46: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu 18 June 2019
:: Disease Outbreak News (DONs) Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
20 June 2019
[See DRC Ebola above for detail]

Mozambique floods
:: Second round of cholera vaccination launches in Cabo Delgado 17 June 2019

Syrian Arab Republic
:: Turkish and Syrian health workers stand together to deliver health services for refugees
19 June 2019

Myanmar – No new digest announcements identified
Nigeria – No new digest announcements identified
Somalia – No new digest announcements identified
South Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

Editor’s Note:
The Bangladesh – Rohingya crisis is now listed as a Grade 2 emergency below.

::::::

WHO Grade 2 Emergencies [to 22 Jun 2019]

occupied Palestinian territory
:: Powering health: WHO brings solar energy to the health sector in Gaza 17 June 2019

Afghanistan – No new digest announcements identified
Cameroon – No new digest announcements identified
Central African Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Cyclone Idai – No new digest announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new digest announcements identified
Iran floods 2019 – No new digest announcements identified
Iraq – No new digest announcements identified
Libya – No new digest announcements identified
Malawi floods – No new digest announcements identified
MERS-CoV – No new digest announcements identified
Niger – No new digest announcements identified
Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Ukraine – No new digest announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new digest announcements identified

::::::

WHO Grade 1 Emergencies [to 22 Jun 2019]

Tanzania
:: Cross border disease outbreak simulation exercise reinforces preparedness in East Africa
12 June 2019

Angola – No new digest announcements identified
Chad – No new digest announcements identified
Djibouti – No new digest announcements identified
Indonesia – Sulawesi earthquake 2018 – No new digest announcements identified
Kenya – No new digest announcements identified
Mali – No new digest announcements identified
Namibia – viral hepatitis – No new digest announcements identified

::::::
::::::

UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Yemen
:: Yemen: Flash floods Flash Update No. 2 As of 17 June 2019

Syrian Arab Republic – No new digest announcements identified

::::::

UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
Editor’s Note:
Ebola in the DRC has bene added as a OCHA “Corporate Emergency” this week:
EBOLA OUTBREAK IN THE DRC
:: République démocratique du Congo Rapport de situation, 21 juin 2019

CYCLONE IDAI and Kenneth – No new digest announcements identified

::::::
::::::

WHO & Regional Offices [to 22 Jun 2019]

WHO & Regional Offices [to 22 Jun 2019]

Papua New Guinea: Over 1 million children to be vaccinated against measles-rubella and polio
17 June 2019 News release Papua New Guinea
…1 million children under five years old in Papua New Guinea who are targeted in the ongoing nationwide free vaccination campaign against three dangerous diseases: measles, rubella and polio. The 3-week campaign that started on 11 June 2019 is led by the National Department of Health, with support from the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF and other partners.
The integrated measles-rubella and polio campaign implemented in the country follows a series of polio vaccination campaigns in Papua New Guinea after a confirmation of a polio outbreak in June 2018. To date, the country has conducted seven rounds of polio campaigns, including three sub-national vaccinations (July 2018, August 2018, December 2018) and four nationwide campaigns (October 2018, November 2018, March 2019 and April 2019).
More than 3.3 million children under 15 years old have received multiple doses of the polio vaccines in the last 10 months…

20 June 2019
News release
WHO highlights scarcity of treatment for epilepsy in low-income countries

19 June 2019
News release
WHO flags critical funding gap, calls for political parties to join fight against Ebola
[See DRC Ebola above for detail]

18 June 2019
News release
In the face of slow progress, WHO offers a new tool and sets a target to accelerate action against antimicrobial resistance

18 June 2019
News release
1 in 3 people globally do not have access to safe drinking water – UNICEF, WHO
[See Milestones above for detail]

 

::::::

Weekly Epidemiological Record, 21 June 2019, vol. 94, 25 (pp. 289–292)
:: Plague around the world in 2019

 

::::::

WHO Regional Offices
Selected Press Releases, Announcements
WHO African Region AFRO
:: As post-cyclone resettlement, 200 000 people lack access to health services in Mozambique
21 June 2019
:: Behind the scenes in the Ebola response : The logistician 21 June 2019
:: Polio: Emergency response is being set up in Bambari. 20 June 2019
:: Deputy Governor says Lagos will ensure no poliovirus is isolated in any part of the State again
20 June 2019
:: WHO supports Adamawa following declaration of a new outbreak of cholera in three Local Government Areas  20 June 2019
:: Uganda hosts Inaugural African Hepatitis Summit 19 June 2019
:: Minister of Health of Rwanda reminds to strengthen measures to prevent the spread of Ebola to Rwanda 16 June 2019

WHO Region of the Americas PAHO
:: WHO highlights scarcity of treatment for epilepsy in low-income countries (06/20/2019)
:: PAHO Director highlights regional health priorities in presentation to OAS (06/19/2019)

WHO South-East Asia Region SEARO
No new digest content identified.

WHO European Region EURO
:: Turkish and Syrian health workers stand together to deliver health services for refugees 19-06-2019

WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region EMRO
:: WHO welcomes Egypt’s support to 14 African countries in their fight against hepatitis C
Kampala, Uganda, 20 June 2019

WHO Western Pacific Region
– No new digest announcements identified

CDC/ACIP [to 22 Jun 2019]

CDC/ACIP [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.cdc.gov/media/index.html
https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/index.html

MMWR News Synopsis for Friday, June 21, 2019
Trends in the Laboratory Detection of Rotavirus Before and After Implementation of Routine Rotavirus Vaccination — United States, 2000–2018
Rotavirus vaccination has dramatically reduced U.S. disease burden and altered seasonal patterns. Improving coverage and on-time rotavirus vaccination of children is critical to maximize public health benefit. Rotavirus, a common cause of gastroenteritis in young children, is preventable with vaccines used in the United States since 2006. CDC analyzed laboratory testing data for rotavirus collected through national surveillance during the pre-vaccine (2000–2006) and post-vaccine (2007–2018) periods. In the post-vaccine period, we observed a decline in annual rotavirus tests; the annual peak in positive tests declined and the rotavirus season was shorter. A biennial rotavirus seasonal pattern emerged with alternating years of low and high disease activity. Rotavirus vaccination has dramatically reduced the disease burden. Peak rotavirus activity declined by more than two thirds, from an annual median of 43.1% in the pre-vaccine era to 14.0% in the post-vaccine era; and peak season was shortened from 26 weeks to 9 weeks. These changes have been sustained over 11 post-vaccine–introduction seasons. To maximize the public health impact, efforts to improve coverage and on-time rotavirus vaccination should continue.

Update: Influenza Activity in the United States During the 2018–19 Season and Composition of the 2019–20 Influenza Vaccine
The 2018–19 influenza season in the United States was of moderate severity and lasted 21 weeks, making it the longest season in 10 years. Influenza vaccination is the best way to reduce the risk of influenza and its potentially serious consequences, including hospitalizations in adults and deaths in children. Influenza antiviral medications are an important adjunct to vaccination in the treatment and prevention of influenza. U.S. influenza-like illness activity began increasing in November 2018, peaked during mid–February, and returned below baseline in mid-April 2019. Influenza A viruses predominated with very little influenza B activity. Two waves of influenza A were notable during this extended season: A(H1N1)pdm09 from October 2018 to mid-February 2019 and A(H3N2) from February through May 2019. Compared to the 2017-18 season, hospitalization rates were lower among adults but higher among children. The majority of A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B viruses characterized antigenically and genetically were similar to recommended Northern Hemisphere 2018-2019 cell grown vaccine reference viruses; however, the majority of A(H3N2) viruses were antigenically distinct from the vaccine virus, prompting a change to the 2019-20 Northern Hemisphere A(H3N2) vaccine component to an A/Kansas/14/2017 (H3N2)-like virus.

Announcements

Announcements

Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://alleninstitute.org/what-we-do/frontiers-group/news-press/
No new digest content identified.

BMGF – Gates Foundation [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases
No new digest content identified.

Bill & Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://www.gatesmri.org/
The Bill & Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute is a non-profit biotech organization. Our mission is to develop products to fight malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrheal diseases—three major causes of mortality, poverty, and inequality in developing countries. The world has unprecedented scientific tools at its disposal; now is the time to use them to save the lives of the world’s poorest people
No new digest content identified.

CARB-X [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://carb-x.org/
CARB-X is a non-profit public-private partnership dedicated to accelerating antibacterial research to tackle the global rising threat of drug-resistant bacteria.
06.17.2019  |
CARB-X awards Oxford Drug Design funding to develop a new class of antibiotics to treat drug-resistant Gram-negative infections
CARB-X is awarding Oxford Drug Design Ltd. of Oxford, UK, up to $2.55 million in non-dilutive funding with the possibility of $4.24 million more if certain project milestones are met, to develop a new class of antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections using an approach designed to reduce the likelihood that resistance will emerge.

CEPI – Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://cepi.net/
No new digest content identified.

Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://clintonhealthaccess.org/about/
No new digest content identified.

EDCTP [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.edctp.org/
The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) aims to accelerate the development of new or improved drugs, vaccines, microbicides and diagnostics against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as well as other poverty-related and neglected infectious diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on phase II and III clinical trials
17 June 2019
ASAAP paediatric malaria treatment study kicks off in Ghana
The ASAAP project – a multi-country, multi-site clinical study to evaluate a new malaria triple therapy for children – has its kick-off meeting today in Accra, Ghana. The project is led and coordinated by Dr Oumou Maiga-Ascofaré of the Kumasi Centre…

Emory Vaccine Center [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.vaccines.emory.edu/
No new digest content identified.

European Medicines Agency [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/
News and press releases
No new digest content identified.

European Vaccine Initiative [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.euvaccine.eu/news-events
No new digest content identified.

FDA [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/default.htm
No new digest content identified.

Fondation Merieux [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.fondation-merieux.org/
Event
Inauguration of a health center in Lebanon
June 21, 2019 – Lebanon
On June 21, a new health center was inaugurated in Duris, Baalbeck-Hermel Governorate in northeastern Lebanon.
The partners of this international solidarity project, represented by Dr. Jamil Jabak, Minister of Health of Lebanon, Mr. Bachir Khodr, Governor of Baalbek-Hermel, Gen. Nazih Njeim, Mayor of Duris, Dr. Kamel Mohanna, President of Amel Association, Ms. Isabelle Rosabrunetto, Director General of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of the Prince’s Government of Monaco, and Mr. Alain Mérieux, President of the Mérieux Foundation, gathered for the inauguration ceremony.
The Mérieux Foundation built this medical center with funding from the International Cooperation Department of the Prince’s Government of Monaco and Fondation Christophe et Rodolphe Mérieux. The project was also supported by the municipality of Duris, which provided the land, and the Governor of Baalbek-Hermel, who facilitated the project…

Announcement
General Jean-Pierre Bosser appointed Director General of the Mérieux Foundation
June 18, 2019 – Lyon (France)
The meeting of the Mérieux Foundation Board of Directors, presided by Alain Mérieux, took place on June 14th. The Board unanimously approved the appointment of General Jean-Pierre Bosser as Director General of the Mérieux Foundation.
General Bosser, currently Chief of Staff of the French Army, will take on his new role at the foundation in September 2019.
“I am delighted to welcome General Bosser to lead our foundation”, said Alain Mérieux, President of the Mérieux Foundation. “We share the same long-term vision for the greater good. General Bosser’s experience and understanding of the realities of the field will be invaluable to us in carrying out our mission to serve public health and thus help the most vulnerable populations.”

Gavi [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://www.gavi.org/
No new digest content identified.

GHIT Fund [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://www.ghitfund.org/newsroom/press
GHIT was set up in 2012 with the aim of developing new tools to tackle infectious diseases that devastate the world’s poorest people. Other funders include six Japanese pharmaceutical
No new digest content identified.

Global Fund [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://www.theglobalfund.org/en/news/
News
Sir Elton John and President Macron Call for $14 Billion for Global Fund Replenishment
21 June 2019
PARIS – Sir Elton John joined French President Emmanuel Macron to call on the world to raise at least US$14 billion for the Global Fund to save 16 million lives over the next three years. The two addressed supporters of the Solidays music festival after President Macron presented Sir Elton the Légion d’honneur, France’s highest award, for his lifetime contribution to the arts and the fight against HIV.
“The fight against AIDS has been my passion for many, many years,” said Sir Elton. “We have made such incredible progress, but we cannot become complacent. A fully replenished Global Fund is essential if we are going to consign this disease to history. I commend President Macron for his leadership in this effort.”
Sir Elton was joined by President Macron, who called on the world to step up the fight to save 16 million lives through a successful Replenishment of the Global Fund.
Watch the full remarks here..

News
The Global Fund Praises Botswana’s Move to Uphold Rights of LGBT People
17 June 2019

Hilleman Laboratories [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.hillemanlabs.org/
No new digest content identified.

Human Vaccines Project [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.humanvaccinesproject.org/media/press-releases/
No new digest content identified.

IAVI [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://www.iavi.org/newsroom
No new digest content identified.

 

IFFIm
http://www.iffim.org/library/news/press-releases/
No new digest content identified.

IFRC [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://media.ifrc.org/ifrc/news/press-releases/
Selected Press Releases, Announcements
No new digest content identified.

IVAC [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/ivac/index.html
No new digest content identified.

IVI [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.ivi.int/
IVI News & Announcements
Prof. Young Chul Sung, biotech leader, personally donates US$8.4 million to IVI
Fund to support IVI’s projects to vaccinate children in developing countries throughout Asia-Pacific and Africa, to develop vaccines against emerging viruses
June 18, 2019 – SEOUL, South Korea. The International Vaccine Institute (IVI) held a donation ceremony at its headquarters in Seoul in honor of Prof. Young-Chul Sung of Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) on June 18, 2019. Prof. Sung, a biotech leader who is a member of the Korea Support Committee for IVI (KSC), signed an agreement during the ceremony to personally donate 10 billion KRW (US$8.43 million) to IVI via the KSC.
The donation, the biggest ever to IVI by an individual donor, is earmarked to fund multi-year vaccination projects for the prevention of neglected infectious diseases in children in developing countries throughout in Asia-Pacific and Africa, and laboratory research projects to develop vaccines against emerging viral diseases…

JEE Alliance [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://www.jeealliance.org/
Selected News and Events
No new digest content identified.

MSF/Médecins Sans Frontières [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.msf.org/
Selected News; Project Updates, Reports
Libya
“Healthwise, it was a disaster” in Libya’s Zintan and Gharyan …
Project Update 21 Jun 2019

Mali
Violence in central Mali has reached unprecedented levels
Interview 20 Jun 2019

Yemen
Aerial bombardments in Sa’ada
Project Update 20 Jun 2019

South Sudan
Life inside or outside a displacement camp
Project Update 20 Jun 2019

Mexico
Mass arrests drive migrants underground and cut them off from…
Press Release 19 Jun 2019

Refugees, IDPs and people on the move
Refugees around the world: Stories of survival
Voices from the Field 19 Jun 2019

DRC Ebola outbreaks
Crisis update – June 2019
Crisis Update 17 Jun 2019

Democratic Republic of Congo
Restoring trust among communities fearful of Ebola
Project Update 13 Jun 2019

NIH [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases
June 19, 2019
Study of multiethnic genomes identifies 27 genetic variants associated with disease
— NIH-funded research highlights need for diversity in study populations, creates a comprehensive genomic toolkit for scientists.

PATH [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://www.path.org/media-center/
No new digest content identified.

Sabin Vaccine Institute [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.sabin.org/updates/pressreleases
No new digest content identified.

UNAIDS [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.unaids.org/en
Selected Press Releases/Reports/Statements
21 June 2019
Virtual communities power HIV services in China

20 June 2019
Botswana enters new phase of AIDS response

19 June 2019
China marks International AIDS Candlelight Memorial Day

18 June 2019
Young women more affected by HIV than young men in western and central Africa

UNAIDS continues to support the response to the HIV outbreak in Pakistan

Ukraine: government to fund publicly procured HIV services

UNICEF [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://www.unicef.org/media/press-releases
Selected Statements, Press Releases, Reports
Statement
Statement by UNICEF Executive Director Henrietta Fore following three-day visit to Mexico
21/06/2019

Press release
Geneva Palais briefing note on the situation for children in the North-West and South-West regions of Cameroon
Over 80 per cent of schools closed as a result of crisis, denying more than 600,000 children access to education
21/06/2019

Press release
1 in 3 people globally do not have access to safe drinking water – UNICEF, WHO
New report on inequalities in access to water, sanitation and hygiene also reveals more than half of the world does not have access to safe sanitation services.
18/06/2019
[See Milestones above for detail]

Statement
UNICEF condemns use of children as human bombs in north-east Nigeria
Statement by UNICEF Representative in Nigeria, Peter Hawkins
17/06/2019

Vaccine Confidence Project [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.vaccineconfidence.org/
Confidence Commentary:
New Global Monitor in Public Trust in Science, Health and Vaccines
19 Jun, 2019
The Wellcome Trust launched their first Global Monitor surveying over 140,000 individuals in 140 countries regarding their trust in science, scientists , health professionals and vaccines.
The Global Monitor adopted the Vaccine Confidence Project’s  Vaccine Confidence Index (TM) to measure confidence in vaccine importance, safety and effectiveness…

Vaccine Education Center – Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.chop.edu/centers-programs/vaccine-education-center
No new digest content identified.

Wellcome Trust [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://wellcome.ac.uk/news
News | 19 June 2019
World survey reveals people trust experts but want to know more about science
Wellcome Global Monitor 2018 shows high overall global trust in doctors, nurses and scientists, and confidence in vaccines.
[See Milestones above for detail]

The Wistar Institute [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://www.wistar.org/news/press-releases
No new digest content identified.

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.oie.int/en/for-the-media/press-releases/2019/
19/06/19
New Multi-Partner Trust Fund launched to combat Antimicrobial Resistance globally
In a major boost  to combat one of the gravest risks to global human health security,   a dedicated funding vehicle allowing national, regional and global partners to devote resources to accelerate global action against Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) was unveiled here today at a Ministerial Conference.
[See Milestones above for detail]

 

::::::

BIO [to 22 Jun 2019]
https://www.bio.org/insights/press-release
No new digest content identified.

DCVMN – Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturers Network [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.dcvmn.org/
No new digest content identified.

IFPMA [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.ifpma.org/resources/news-releases/
No new digest content identified.

PhRMA [to 22 Jun 2019]
http://www.phrma.org/press-room
No new digest content identified.

Journal Watch

Journal Watch
Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review continues its weekly scanning of key peer-reviewed journals to identify and cite articles, commentary and editorials, books reviews and other content supporting our focus on vaccine ethics and policy. Journal Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues the Center is actively tracking. We selectively provide full text of some editorial and comment articles that are specifically relevant to our work. Successful access to some of the links provided may require subscription or other access arrangement unique to the publisher.
If you would like to suggest other journal titles to include in this service, please contact David Curry at: david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org

Observational study of a new strategy and management policy for measles prevention in medical personnel in a hospital setting

BMC Infectious Diseases
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content
(Accessed 22 Jun 2019)

 

Research article
Observational study of a new strategy and management policy for measles prevention in medical personnel in a hospital setting
At the end of March 2018, a clustered outbreak of measles associated with health care workers occurred in northern Taiwan. Prior to this study, the policy for measles vaccination for physicians and nurses in M…
Authors: Chang-Pan Liu, Hsi-Peng Lu and Tainyi Luor
Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:551
Published on: 21 June 2019

A scoping review on the roles and tasks of peer reviewers in the manuscript review process in biomedical journals

BMC Medicine
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcmed/content
(Accessed 22 Jun 2019)

 

Research article
|   20 June 2019
A scoping review on the roles and tasks of peer reviewers in the manuscript review process in biomedical journals
Although peer reviewers play a key role in the manuscript review process, their roles and tasks are poorly defined. Clarity around this issue is important as it may influence the quality of peer reviewer reports. This scoping review explored the roles and tasks of peer reviewers of biomedical journals.
Authors: Ketevan Glonti, Daniel Cauchi, Erik Cobo, Isabelle Boutron, David Moher and Darko Hren

Postmarketing commitments for novel drugs and biologics approved by the US Food and Drug Administration: a cross-sectional analysis

BMC Medicine
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcmed/content
(Accessed 22 Jun 2019)

 

Research article
Postmarketing commitments for novel drugs and biologics approved by the US Food and Drug Administration: a cross-sectional analysis
Postmarketing commitments are clinical studies that pharmaceutical companies agree to conduct at the time of FDA approval, but which are not required by statute or regulation. As FDA increasingly adopts a life…
Authors: Joshua D. Wallach, Anita T. Luxkaranayagam, Sanket S. Dhruva, Jennifer E. Miller and Joseph S. Ross
Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:117
Published on: 17 June 2019

The feasibility of universal HPV vaccination program in Shenzhen of China: a health policy analysis

BMC Public Health
http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles
(Accessed 22 Jun 2019)

 

Research article
The feasibility of universal HPV vaccination program in Shenzhen of China: a health policy analysis
HPV vaccination for the prioritized adolescent girls is well accepted and implemented in developed countries as an effective measure for cervical cancer prevention and control with increasing population-level …
Authors: Ruirui Chen and Eliza Wong
Citation: BMC Public Health 2019 19:781
Published on: 20 June 2019

Newspaper coverage before and after the HPV vaccination crisis began in Japan: a text mining analysis

BMC Public Health
http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles
(Accessed 22 Jun 2019)

 

Research article
Newspaper coverage before and after the HPV vaccination crisis began in Japan: a text mining analysis
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage rate has fallen sharply in Japan since 2013, when newspapers began covering negative campaigns against the vaccination. We examined and compared contents fro…
Authors: Tsuyoshi Okuhara, Hirono Ishikawa, Masafumi Okada, Mio Kato and Takahiro Kiuchi
Citation: BMC Public Health 2019 19:770
Published on: 17 June 2019

Consent and Autonomy in the Genomics Era

Current Genetic Medicine Reports
Volume 7, Issue 2, June 2019
https://link.springer.com/journal/40142/7/2

 

Topical Collection
Consent and Autonomy in the Genomics Era
Genomic tests offer increased opportunity for diagnosis, but their outputs are often uncertain and complex; results may need to be revised and/or may not be relevant until some future time. We discuss the challenges that this presents for consent and autonomy.
Rachel Horton, Anneke Lucassen

Re‐identifiability of genomic data and the GDPR: Assessing the re‐identifiability of genomic data in light of the EU General Data Protection Regulation

EMBO Reports
Volume 20 Issue 6 June 2019
https://www.embopress.org/toc/14693178/current

 

Science & Society 24 May 2019
Re‐identifiability of genomic data and the GDPR: Assessing the re‐identifiability of genomic data in light of the EU General Data Protection Regulation
Mahsa Shabani, Luca Marelli
The EU Data Protection Regulation has wide‐ranging implications for research based on anonymized personal genomic and genetic data given the realistic risk of re‐identification.

A socio-cultural study of traditional healers role in African health care

Infectious Agents and Cancer
http://www.infectagentscancer.com/content
[Accessed 22 Jun 2019]

 

Research Article
|   20 June 2019
A socio-cultural study of traditional healers role in African health care
There is a widely held view that a major cause of delay in diagnosis of cancer at an early stage in Africa is the fact that many patients consult traditional healers first and are often treated by them until curative treatment cannot be undertaken.
Authors: C. C. Asuzu, E. O. Akin-Odanye, M. C. Asuzu and J. Holland

Screening for HIV Infection – US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

JAMA
June 18, 2019, Vol 321, No. 23, Pages 2255-2376
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/issue.aspx

 

Recommendation Statement
Screening for HIV Infection – US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement
US Preventive Services Task Force
free access has active quiz has audio
JAMA. 2019;321(23):2326-2336. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.6587
This 2019 Recommendation Statement from the US Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening for HIV infection in adolescents and adults aged 15 to 65 years and in younger adolescents and older adults at increased risk of infection (A recommendation) and in all pregnant persons, including those with unknown HIV status at labor or delivery (A recommendation).
Audio Interview: Screening for HIV infection and Use of Preexposure Prophylaxis for Prevention of HIV Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statements
Editorial
HIV Screening and Preexposure Prophylaxis Guidelines – Following the Evidence
Hyman Scott, MD; Paul A. Volberding, MD
Audio Interview: HIV Screening and Preexposure Prophylaxis Guidelines
New USPSTF Guidelines for HIV Screening and Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)Straight A’s
Rochelle P. Walensky, MD, MPH; A. David Paltiel, PhD, MBA

Screening for HIV Infection in Asymptomatic, Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults – Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force

JAMA
June 18, 2019, Vol 321, No. 23, Pages 2255-2376
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/issue.aspx

 

Evidence Report
Screening for HIV Infection in Asymptomatic, Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults – Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force
Roger Chou, MD; Tracy Dana, MLS; Sara Grusing, BA; et al.
free access has audio
JAMA. 2019;321(23):2337-2348. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.2592
This systematic review to support the 2019 updated US Preventive Services Task Force guideline on screening for HIV infection in adolescents and adults summarizes published evidence on the clinical benefits and harms of screening and intervention for HIV infection in asymptomatic, nonpregnant adolescents and adults.

Screening for HIV Infection in Pregnant Women – Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force

JAMA
June 18, 2019, Vol 321, No. 23, Pages 2255-2376
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/issue.aspx

 

Evidence Report
Screening for HIV Infection in Pregnant Women – Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force
Shelley S. Selph, MD, MPH; Christina Bougatsos, MPH; Tracy Dana, MLS; et al.
free access has audio
JAMA. 2019;321(23):2349-2360. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.2593
This systematic review to support the 2019 updated US Preventive Services Task Force guideline on screening for HIV infection in pregnant women summarizes published evidence on the clinical benefits and harms of screening and intervention for HIV infection in pregnant women.

The politics of PHEIC

The Lancet
Jun 22, 2019 Volume 393Number 10190p2469-2562, e44
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

 

Editorial
The politics of PHEIC
The Lancet
An emergency committee decided on June 14 that the current Ebola virus disease outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo did not warrant a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). It was the third time the committee has decided against a PHEIC declaration since this Ebola outbreak began in August, 2018, which has now affected over 2100 people. WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus agreed with the committee’s advice but asserted the outbreak remains an emergency.

The decision has been met mostly with surprise, in light of two Ebola-related deaths in neighbouring Uganda. Global health leaders reacted with disappointment, saying that a PHEIC would have raised the levels of international support, enhanced diplomatic efforts and security, and released more financial resources to support the response teams in the region. The emergency committee acknowledged the cross-border spread and commended Uganda for its response. They decided the economic harms associated with a PHEIC declaration would outweigh the benefits.

We disagree. The decision appears more political than technical and that is a mistake. The committee seems to have favoured local protectiveness over global galvanising. Yes, Uganda deserves visible credit for its preparedness, collaboration, and transparency. Yes, nearby countries should feel bolstered by the confidence of WHO and its Director-General. And yes, recalcitrant donors should be reassured of the ability of African countries to prepare for and contain infectious disease outbreaks, and thus be deserving of investment. But calling a PHEIC would not distract from any of these local interests, and the decision might backfire in terms of not inciting a sense of urgency from the international community.

PHEIC could be a force for good, mobilising global resources and communities to build solidarity, preparedness, trust, and resolution of conflict. The concerns about trade and tourism restrictions with PHEIC are valid but not inevitable. Global financial and political support is badly needed, and a PHEIC declaration would have produced that.

Improving health with programmatic, legal, and policy approaches to reduce gender inequality and change restrictive gender norms

The Lancet
Jun 22, 2019 Volume 393Number 10190p2469-2562, e44
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

 

Series
Gender Equality, Norms, and Health
Improving health with programmatic, legal, and policy approaches to reduce gender inequality and change restrictive gender norms
Jody Heymann,et al, on behalf of the Gender Equality, Norms and Health Steering Committee

Characterising unmet HIV prevention and treatment needs among young female sex workers and young men who have sex with men in Cameroon: a cross-sectional analysis

The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Jul 2019 Volume 3Number 7p437-510, e5-e10
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanchi/issue/current

 

Articles
Characterising unmet HIV prevention and treatment needs among young female sex workers and young men who have sex with men in Cameroon: a cross-sectional analysis
Anna L Bowring, et al
In Cameroon, female sex workers (FSWs) and men who have sex with men (MSM) carry disproportionately high burdens of HIV. Despite specific vulnerabilities and health needs, young key populations remain understudied and underserved in Cameroon owing to legal, ethical, and social challenges. We aimed to assess and compare HIV-related behavioural and structural risks and coverage of HIV prevention and treatment services between young and older key populations to inform implementation strategies.

Global impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on rotavirus hospitalisations among children under 5 years of age, 2008–16: findings from the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network

Lancet Global Health
Jul 2019 Volume 7 Number 7e808-e978
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/issue/current

 

ARTICLES
Global impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on rotavirus hospitalisations among children under 5 years of age, 2008–16: findings from the Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network
Negar Aliabadi, et al
Summary
Background
Rotavirus vaccine use in national immunisation programmes has led to declines in hospital admissions for rotavirus gastroenteritis among children; however, the global impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction has not been described using primary data. We describe the impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction on admissions for acute rotavirus gastroenteritis in primarily low-income and middle-income countries, using 9 years of data from the WHO-coordinated Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network (GRSN).
Methods
Between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2016, children younger than 5 years of age who were admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis were prospectively enrolled in GRSN sites. We included sites that enrolled children and collected stool specimens monthly and tested at least 100 specimens annually in the impact analysis, with a separate analysis taking into account site continuity. We compared proportions of acute gastroenteritis cases positive for rotavirus in the pre-vaccine and post-vaccine periods and calculated mean proportion changes for WHO regions, with 95% CIs; these findings were then compared with interrupted time series analyses. We did further sensitivity analyses to account for rotavirus vaccination coverage levels and sites that collected specimens for at least 11 months per year and tested at least 80 specimens per year. We also analysed the age distribution of rotavirus-positive cases before and after vaccine introduction.
Findings
403,140 children younger than 5 years of age admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis from 349 sites in 82 countries were enrolled over the study period, of whom 132,736 (32·9%) were positive for rotavirus. We included 305 789 children from 198 sites in 69 countries in the impact analysis. In countries that had not introduced rotavirus vaccine in their national immunisation programmes, rotavirus was detected in 38·0% (95% CI 4·8–73·4) of admissions for acute gastroenteritis annually whereas in those that have introduced the vaccine, rotavirus was detected in 23·0% (0·7–57·7) of admissions for acute gastroenteritis, showing a 39·6% (35·4–43·8) relative decline following introduction. Interrupted time series analyses confirmed these findings. Reductions by WHO regions ranged from 26·4% (15·0–37·8) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region to 55·2% (43·0–67·4) in the European Region and were sustained in nine countries (contributing up to 31 sites) for 6–10 years. The age distribution of children with rotavirus gastroenteritis shifted towards older children after rotavirus vaccine introduction.
Interpretation
A significant and sustained reduction in the proportion of hospital admissions for acute gastroenteritis due to rotavirus was seen among children younger than 5 years in GRSN sites following rotavirus vaccine introduction. These findings highlight the need to incorporate rotavirus vaccines into immunisation programmes in countries that have not yet introduced them and underline the importance of high-quality surveillance.
Funding
The GRSN receives funding from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. No specific funding was provided for this Article.

Pathogen genomics leading to vaccines

Nature Genetics
Volume 51 Issue 6, June 2019
https://www.nature.com/ng/volumes/51/issues/6

 

Editorial | 31 May 2019
Pathogen genomics leading to vaccines
In the field of infectious diseases, genomics can be a useful tool for guiding vaccine development. Given the inevitability and increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, vaccines against pathogenic microbes can be even more valuable than antibiotics as a strategy to prevent serious or deadly infectious diseases. Genomic resources from global analysis of large numbers of clinical isolates can serve as a basis for identifying appropriate candidates for vaccine antigens, and we encourage continued efforts in the generation of pan-genome sequences for bacterial or viral pathogens.