Roadmap for a precision-medicine initiative in the Nordic region

Nature Genetics
Volume 51 Issue 6, June 2019
https://www.nature.com/ng/volumes/51/issues/6

 

Comment | 15 April 2019
Roadmap for a precision-medicine initiative in the Nordic region
The Nordic region, comprising primarily Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, has many of the necessary characteristics for being at the forefront of genome-based precision medicine. These include egalitarian and universal healthcare, expertly curated patient and population registries, biobanks, large population-based prospective cohorts linked to registries and biobanks, and a widely embraced sense of social responsibility that motivates public engagement in biomedical research. However, genome-based precision medicine can be achieved only through coordinated action involving all actors in the healthcare sector. Now is an opportune time to organize scientists in the Nordic region, together with other stakeholders including patient representatives, governments, pharmaceutical companies, academic institutions and funding agencies, to initiate a Nordic Precision Medicine Initiative. We present a roadmap for how this organization can be created. The Initiative should facilitate research, clinical trials and knowledge transfer to meet regional and global health challenges.
Pål Rasmus Njølstad, Ole Andreas Andreassen[…] & Kári Stefánsson

Atlas of group A streptococcal vaccine candidates compiled using large-scale comparative genomics

Nature Genetics
Volume 51 Issue 6, June 2019
https://www.nature.com/ng/volumes/51/issues/6

 

Article | 27 May 2019
Atlas of group A streptococcal vaccine candidates compiled using large-scale comparative genomics
Analyses of 2,083 globally distributed group A Streptococcus (GAS) genomes enable the development of a compendium of all GAS vaccine antigen sequences, providing a platform for population-genomics-informed vaccine design.
Mark R. Davies, Liam McIntyre[…] & Mark J. Walker

A duty to recontact in genetics: context matters

Nature Reviews Genetics
Volume 20 Issue 7, July 2019
https://www.nature.com/nrg/volumes/20/issues/7

 

Comment | 01 April 2019
A duty to recontact in genetics: context matters
The clinical application of genomic technologies is driving new discoveries that may be relevant to individuals who have previously undergone genetic testing. This Comment highlights the need for a framework to decide whether to recontact patients and inform them of new genetic findings.
Noor A. A. Giesbertz, Wim H. van Harten & Annelien L. Bredenoord

Cholera prevention and control in refugee settings: Successes and continued challenges

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
http://www.plosntds.org/
(Accessed 22 Jun 2019)

 

Policy Platform
Cholera prevention and control in refugee settings: Successes and continued challenges
Kerry Shannon, Marisa Hast, Andrew S. Azman, Dominique Legros, Heather McKay, Justin Lessler
| published 20 Jun 2019 PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007347
…For these situations in which crises may overwhelm the capacity to provide appropriate services and the risk of cholera is thought to be high, the use of the OCV is an emerging strategy, endorsed by WHO, to supplement other cholera prevention and control efforts [58]. In 2013, WHO established a global stockpile of OCV, which was first used in an emergency setting in 2014 in two IDP camps in South Sudan [57]. As of July 2017, more than 25 million doses have been deployed from this stockpile, and availability has been increasing each year [59]. Although investment in water, sanitation, and healthcare infrastructure, supplies, and service provision will have the most impact on prevention and control of cholera and other diarrheal diseases, the vaccine is a potentially powerful tool that can be used when minimum standards are challenging to meet in a timely manner because of the severity or complexity of a humanitarian emergency….
Conclusions
Cholera continues to be a significant problem in humanitarian settings, with recent outbreaks in displaced populations in South Sudan, Yemen, Cameroon, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Haiti, and Iraq. The success of cholera prevention and control in refugee camps over the past 2 decades highlights the possibility of managing this deadly disease, even in complicated humanitarian crises. Sphere standards and associated control strategies have been shown to be effective in humanitarian crisis settings, dramatically reducing the number and size of outbreaks seen in refugee camps after the North Kivu disaster. Although other vulnerable populations, particularly IDPs, continue to suffer from a substantial cholera burden, application of these strategies in combination with supplementary tools such as OCV have the potential to substantially reduce cholera cases and deaths in line with the 2030 goal of reducing cholera deaths by 90% worldwide.

Towards a further understanding of measles vaccine hesitancy in Khartoum state, Sudan: A qualitative study

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 22 Jun 2019]

 

Research Article
Towards a further understanding of measles vaccine hesitancy in Khartoum state, Sudan: A qualitative study
Majdi M. Sabahelzain, Mohamed Moukhyer, Eve Dubé, Ahmed Hardan, Bart van den Borne, Hans Bosma
Research Article | published 20 Jun 2019 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0213882

Vaccines and global health: In search of a sustainable model for vaccine development and delivery

Science Translational Medicine
19 June 2019 Vol 11, Issue 497
https://stm.sciencemag.org/

 

Perspective
Vaccines and global health: In search of a sustainable model for vaccine development and delivery
By Rino Rappuoli, Steven Black, David E. Bloom
Science Translational Medicine19 Jun 2019 Restricted Access
Abstract
Most vaccines for diseases in low- and middle-income countries fail to be developed because of weak or absent market incentives. Conquering diseases such as tuberculosis, HIV, malaria, and Ebola, as well as illnesses caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens, requires considerable investment and a new sustainable model of vaccine development involving close collaborations between public and private sectors.

For vaccination programs to succeed, confidence in vaccines needs to be nurtured and the benefits of vaccination need to be effectively communicated. Successful examples, such as the New Zealand meningococcus B vaccine and U.K. meningococcus C vaccine, were supported by separate budgets for vaccine campaigns to communicate the importance of vaccination for public health. Dedicated investment for such vaccine campaigns is rare, but maintaining the confidence of the populace during vaccination efforts is key. Communication must be the exclusive domain of the public sector because the industry’s conflict of interest would render it untrustworthy for this purpose…

 

…The success of early-stage development efforts for new vaccines has resulted in an unexpected potential crisis on the back end of the process, resulting in a lack of capacity and resources to push vaccine candidates through late-stage development to market introduction. If we can tackle this crisis, then we can harness the promise of prospective vaccines to improve global health for all.

Modeling HPV vaccination scale-up among urban young men who have sex with men in the context of HIV

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 29 Pages 3745-3932 (27 June 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/29

 

Research article Abstract only
Modeling HPV vaccination scale-up among urban young men who have sex with men in the context of HIV
Neal D. Goldstein, Michael T. LeVasseur, Nguyen K. Tran, Jonathan Purtle, … Stephen C. Eppes
Pages 3883-3891

Declines in HPV vaccine type prevalence in women screened for cervical cancer in the United States: Evidence of direct and herd effects of vaccination

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 29 Pages 3745-3932 (27 June 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/29

 

Research article Abstract only
Declines in HPV vaccine type prevalence in women screened for cervical cancer in the United States: Evidence of direct and herd effects of vaccination
Lauri E. Markowitz, Allison L. Naleway, Rayleen M. Lewis, Bradley Crane, … Elizabeth R. Unger
Pages 3918-3924

New Rabies Vaccines for Use in Humans

Vaccines — Open Access Journal
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines
(Accessed 22 Jun 2019)

 

Review
New Rabies Vaccines for Use in Humans
Hildegund C. J. Ertl
The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Received: 3 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 20 June 2019
Abstract
Although vaccines are available, rabies still claims more than 55,000 human lives each year. In most cases, rabies vaccines are given to humans after their exposure to a rabid animal; pre-exposure vaccination is largely reserved for humans at high risk for contacts with the virus. Most cases of human rabies are transmitted by dogs. Dog rabies control by mass canine vaccination campaigns combined with intensive surveillance programs has led to a decline of human rabies in many countries but has been unsuccessful in others. Animal vaccination programs are also not suited to control human rabies caused by bat transmission, which is common in some Central American countries. Alternatively, or in addition, more widespread pre-exposure vaccination, especially in highly endemic remote areas, could be implemented. With the multiple dose regimens of current vaccines, pre-exposure vaccination is not cost effective for most countries and this warrants the development of new rabies vaccines, which are as safe as current vaccines, but achieve protective immunity after a single dose, and most importantly, are less costly. This chapter discusses novel rabies vaccines that are in late stage pre-clinical testing or have undergone clinical testing and their potential for replacing current vaccines.

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

BMJ Open
Volume 9, Issue 5 2019
Public health
Research
Understanding non-vaccinating parents’ views to inform and improve clinical encounters: a qualitative study in an Australian community
Catherine Helps1, Julie Leask2, Lesley Barclay1, Stacy Carter3Author affiliations
Abstract
Objectives To explain vaccination refusal in a sample of Australian parents.
Design Qualitative design, purposive sampling in a defined population.
Setting A geographically bounded community of approximately 30 000 people in regional Australia with high prevalence of vaccination refusal.
Participants Semi structured interviews with 32 non-vaccinating parents: 9 fathers, 22 mothers and 1 pregnant woman. Purposive sampling of parents who had decided to discontinue or decline all vaccinations for their children. Recruitment via local advertising then snowballing.
Results Thematic analysis focused on explaining decision-making pathways of parents who refuse vaccination. Common patterns in parents’ accounts included: perceived deterioration in health in Western societies; a personal experience introducing doubt about vaccine safety; concerns regarding consent; varied encounters with health professionals (dismissive, hindering and helpful); a quest for ‘the real truth’; reactance to system inflexibilities and ongoing risk assessment.
Conclusions We suggest responses tailored to the perspectives of non-vaccinating parents to assist professionals in understanding and maintaining empathic clinical relationships with this important patient group.
Strengths and limitations of this study
Parents were recruited and interviewed in a non-clinical setting allowing them to express their views without time constraint, judgement or consequence.
Adds knowledge about a difficult to access group of parents.
Interviews occurred in a unique geographical cluster of under-vaccination in which there is a well-established community emphasis on natural health and lifestyle which is not representative of the broader Australian community reducing generalisability.

Media/Policy Watch

Media/Policy Watch
This watch section is intended to alert readers to substantive news, analysis and opinion from the general media and selected think tanks and similar organizations on vaccines, immunization, global public health and related themes. Media Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues CVEP is actively tracking. This section will grow from an initial base of newspapers, magazines and blog sources, and is segregated from Journal Watch above which scans the peer-reviewed journal ecology.
We acknowledge the Western/Northern bias in this initial selection of titles and invite suggestions for expanded coverage. We are conservative in our outlook in adding news sources which largely report on primary content we are already covering above. Many electronic media sources have tiered, fee-based subscription models for access. We will provide full-text where content is published without restriction, but most publications require registration and some subscription level.

 

The Atlantic
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/
Accessed 22 Jun 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

BBC
http://www.bbc.co.uk/
Accessed 22 Jun 2019
Health
How anti-vaccine movements threaten global health
By BBC Monitoring
20 June 2019

 

The Economist
http://www.economist.com/
Accessed 22 Jun 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

Financial Times
http://www.ft.com/home/uk
Accessed 22 Jun 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

Forbes
http://www.forbes.com/
Accessed 22 Jun 2019
Editor’s Pick
Jun 21, 2019
‘Dr. Bob’ Sears Accused Of Issuing Invalid Vaccine Medical Exemptions–Again
Tara Haelle, Senior Contributor

 

Foreign Affairs
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/
Accessed 22 Jun 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

Foreign Policy
http://foreignpolicy.com/
Accessed 22 Jun 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

The Guardian
http://www.guardiannews.com/
Accessed 22 Jun 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

New Yorker
http://www.newyorker.com/
Accessed 22 Jun 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/
U.S.
California Assembly Committee Backs Vaccine Exemption Law
A California Assembly committee backed new rules for vaccination exemptions on Thursday following a raucous, hours-long hearing in the midst of a national measles outbreak and renewed scrutiny of immunization policies.
By The Associated Press
June 20

Opinion
Time Is Running Out to Stop an Ebola Epidemic
A mass exodus from the Democratic Republic of Congo could be catastrophic.
By The Editorial Board
June 19

Vaccine Injury Claims Are Few and Far Between
June 14

 

Washington Post
http://www.washingtonpost.com/
Jun 16, 2019
Counties require summer camp vaccines amid measles outbreak
Michael Hill | AP · National

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review :: 15 June 2019

.– Request an Email Summary: Vaccines and Global Health : The Week in Review is published as a single email summary, scheduled for release each Saturday evening before midnight (EDT in the U.S.). If you would like to receive the email version, please send your request to david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org.

 pdf version A pdf of the current issue is available here: Vaccines and Global Health_The Week in Review_15 Jun 2019

– blog edition: comprised of the approx. 35+ entries posted below.

– Twitter:  Readers can also follow developments on twitter: @vaxethicspolicy.
.
– Links:  We endeavor to test each link as we incorporate it into any post, but recognize that some links may become “stale” as publications and websites reorganize content over time. We apologize in advance for any links that may not be operative. We believe the contextual information in a given post should allow retrieval, but please contact us as above for assistance if necessary.

Support this knowledge-sharing service: Your financial support helps us cover our costs and to address a current shortfall in our annual operating budget. Click here to donate and thank you in advance for your contribution.

.
David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

DRC – Ebola/Measles/Cholera

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

DRC – Ebola/Measles/Cholera

Editor’s Note:
With the confirmed cases of Ebola in Uganda, a number of parallel announcements from governments, agencies and NGOs working in the crisis areas emerged this week as captured below. We lead with the IHR Emergency Committee statement:

Statement on the meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee for Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
14 June 2019 [Editor’s text bolding]
The meeting of the Emergency Committee convened by the WHO Director-General under the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) regarding Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) took place on Friday, 14 June 2019, from 12:00 to 17:00 Geneva time (CEST).

Context and Discussion
The Committee expressed its deep concern about the ongoing outbreak, which, despite some positive epidemiological trends, especially in the epicentres of Butembo and Katwa, shows that the extension and/or reinfection of disease in other areas like Mabalako, presents, once again, challenges around community acceptance and security. In addition, the response continues to be hampered by a lack of adequate funding and strained human resources.

 

The cluster of cases in Uganda is not unexpected; the rapid response and initial containment is a testament to the importance of preparedness in neighbouring countries. The Committee commends the communication and collaboration between DRC and Uganda.

At the same time, the exportation of cases into Uganda is a reminder that, as long as this outbreak continues in DRC, there is a risk of spread to neighbouring countries, although the risk of spread to countries outside the region remains low.

The Committee wishes to commend the heroic work of all responders, who continue to work under extremely challenging and stressful conditions.

The Committee extensively debated the impact of a PHEIC declaration on the response, possible unintended consequences, and how these might be managed. Differing views were expressed, as the Committee acknowledged that recent cases in Uganda constitute international spread of disease.

Conclusions and Advice
It was the view of the Committee that the outbreak is a health emergency in DRC and the region but does not meet all the three criteria for a PHEIC under the IHR. While the outbreak is an extraordinary event, with risk of international spread, the ongoing response would not be enhanced by formal Temporary Recommendations under the IHR (2005).

The Committee provided the following public health advice, which it strongly urges countries and responding partners to heed:
:: At-risk countries should improve their preparedness for detecting and managing exported cases, as Uganda has done.
:: Cross-border screening in DRC should continue and its quality improved and sustained.
:: Continue to map population movements and sociological patterns that can predict risk of disease spread.
:: All priority countries should put in place approvals for investigational medicines and vaccines as an immediate priority for preparedness.
:: Optimal vaccine strategies that have maximum impact on curtailing the outbreak, as recommended by WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE), should be implemented rapidly.
:: The Committee is deeply disappointed that WHO and the affected countries have not received the funding and resources needed for this outbreak. The international community must step up funding and support strengthening of preparedness and response in DRC and neighbouring countries.
:: Continue to strengthen community awareness, engagement, and participation. There has been a great deal of progress in community engagement activities. However, in border communities, where mobility is especially likely, community engagement needs to be more sharply targeted to identify the populations most at risk.
:: The implementation by the UN and partners of more coordinated measures to reduce security threats, mitigate security risks, and create an enabling environment for public health operations is welcomed and encouraged by the Committee as an essential platform for accelerating disease-control efforts.
:: The Committee strongly emphasizes its previous advice against the application of any international travel or trade restrictions.
:: The Committee does not consider entry screening at airports or other ports of entry to be necessary.

The Committee advised the WHO Director-General to continue to monitor the situation closely and reconvene the Emergency Committee as needed….

…Representatives of the National Communicable Disease Control Commission in Uganda reviewed recent cases, contacts, and contact tracing. They updated the Committee on their response actions, including notification to WHO and political involvement, and preparedness activities that have been taking place since August 2018. A national coordination task force has been activated and a rapid response team deployed. Clinical management is available in an Ebola Treatment Unit in Bwera. Screening is taking place at official points of entry. Ring vaccination will begin on 15 June.

A representative of the WHO Regional Office for Africa presented the status of regional preparedness activities, particularly in Burundi, Rwanda, South Sudan, and Uganda. Ongoing challenges were noted, especially at district/subnational levels, as well as inadequate crossborder collaboration and a lack of funding to sustain preparedness activities.

 

A representative of the International Organization for Migration updated the Committee on prevention, detection, and control measures at points of entry, for cross-border preparedness…

The UN Ebola Emergency Response Coordinator gave an update on the security situation and efforts to create a dynamic, nimble enabling environment to support outbreak response. There have been frequent disruptions to the response, which has had implications for increased numbers of cases. UN-wide support is needed to strengthen the public health response and coordinate international assistance. Access and community acceptance are increasing, with decreases in cases in some areas. Increases in attacks in some areas are being addressed…

Based on the above advice, the reports made by the affected States Parties, and the currently available information, the Director-General accepted the Committee’s assessment that the Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo does not constitute a Public Health Emergency of International Concern

 

::::::

Disease Outbreak News (DONs)
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo 13 June 2019
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) continues to show a decrease in the number of new cases in hotspots such as Katwa, Beni and Kalunguta health zones. However, in other areas such as Mabalako and Butembo, moderate rates of transmission continue…

45: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu 12 June 2019
Points of Entry (PoE)
From 3 to 9 June, 1,873,230 screenings were performed, giving a total over 65 million cumulative screenings. This week, a total of 62 alerts were notified, of which 19 were validated as suspect cases following investigation; none were returned positive for EVD after laboratory testing. This brings the cumulative number of alerts to 1,214, with 467 validated as suspect cases, and 11 subsequently confirmed with EVD following laboratory testing. An average of 92% PoEs and PoCs reported screenings daily this week.
On 5 June 2019, four vaccinated contacts lost to follow-up were intercepted at PoC OPRP, travelling from Butembo to Goma on their 13th day of follow-up. All four have agreed to return to Butembo until the end of their follow-up period…

…Implementation of ring vaccination protocol
As of 8 June 2019, 131,471 people at risk have consented to and received the rVSV-ZEBOV-GP Ebola vaccine. Of those, 33,046 are contacts and 87,886 contacts-of-contacts. The total number of vaccines includes 31,016 HCWs/FLWs and 34,522 children 1-17 years of age.
Four new rings (2 in Katwa, 1 in Mandima and 1 in Mabalako) have opened around six confirmed cases from 5 June 2019 and three new rings (2 in Katwa and 1 in Butembo) were opened around eight confirmed cases on 7 June 2019.

Despite the challenges in the field and considering the cases reported between 30 April 2019 and 20 May 2019, only 31/337 (9.2%) of the cases do not have a ring defined and their contacts and contacts-of-contacts vaccinated. For 113/337 (33.5%) of the cases the ring vaccination was completed and for 193/337 (57.2%) ring vaccination was ongoing at the time of writing this report. This important progress is the result of the use of innovative delivery strategies (i.e. pop-up vaccination and targeted geographic vaccination) and strong community negotiations and engagement…

 

::::::

Update On African Union Actions in Response to Recent Ebola Outbreaks
Africa CDC 13 June 2019
Following the recent outbreak of Ebola cases reported in Uganda, The African Union (AU) is collaborating with the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Uganda to mobilise support to ensure adequate response and implementation of prevention and control measures, including deployment of senior experts from the AU’s Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC).
Africa CDC teams are also currently deployed to the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and have been involved in implementing key interventions in partnership with the Government and other partners.
SUMMARY OF AFRICA CDC ACTIVITIES IN THE DRC…

 

::::::

CDC Activates Emergency Operations Center for Ebola Outbreak in Eastern DRC
Wednesday, June 12, 2019
Today the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is announcing activation of its Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on Thursday, June 13, 2019, to support the inter-agency response to the current Ebola outbreak in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The DRC outbreak is the second largest outbreak of Ebola ever recorded and the largest outbreak in DRC’s history. The confirmation this week of three travel-associated cases in Uganda further emphasizes the ongoing threat of this outbreak. As part of the Administration’s whole-of-government effort, CDC subject matter experts are working with the USAID Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) on the ground in the DRC and the American Embassy in Kinshasa to support the Congolese and international response. The CDC’s EOC staff will further enhance this effort.
CDC’s activation of the EOC at Level 3, the lowest level of activation, allows the agency to provide increased operational support for the response to meet the outbreak’s evolving challenges. CDC subject matter experts will continue to lead the CDC response with enhanced support from other CDC and EOC staff.
“We are activating the Emergency Operations Center at CDC headquarters to provide enhanced operational support to our expanded Ebola response team deployed in DRC,” said CDC Director Robert R. Redfield, M.D. “Through CDC’s command center we are consolidating our public health expertise and logistics planning for a longer term, sustained effort to bring this complex epidemic to an end.”…

 

::::::

Press release
UNICEF launches swift response as first Ebola cases and deaths confirmed in Uganda
5-year-old boy and his grandmother die from Ebola virus in western Uganda
KAMPALA/NAIROBI/NEW YORK, 13 June 2019 – UNICEF has launched an emergency Ebola response plan in Uganda following the confirmation of the first three cases of Ebola Virus Disease in the country over the past two days.

Among the cases was a 5-year-old boy who, following a visit with his family to the neighbouring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), returned to Uganda on 9 June and died on Tuesday night after having been transferred to the Bwera Ebola Treatment Unit in Kasese.
The boy’s grandmother also died from the virus in Kasese district on Wednesday, where almost 400,000 children live.

UNICEF’s shift to its response phase in Uganda follows months of preparedness and prevention efforts as Ebola cases increased in neighbouring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
“As our thoughts are with this young boy’s family, this is a tragic reminder that even one case of Ebola is one too many,” said UNICEF Representative in Uganda, Dr. Doreen Mulenga. “We must do everything possible to stop this outbreak in its tracks and prevent other needless deaths.  UNICEF is intensifying its efforts to do so and minimize this outbreak’s potentially devastating impact on children and communities at-large in Uganda.”…

 

::::::

DRC Ebola outbreaks – MSF/Médecins Sans Frontières
Crisis update – June 2019

Democratic Republic of Congo
Restoring trust among communities fearful of Ebola
Project Update 13 Jun 2019

Democratic Republic of Congo
Massive mobilisation urgently needed to curb fast-spreading measles…
Press Release 11 Jun 2019
:: New measles outbreak in DRC is anticipated to be the worst the country has seen since 2012
:: MSF urges national and international organisations to immediately coordinate to help curb the spread, including vaccination
:: Vaccines and supplies to help with the outbreak response must be urgently secured

 

::::::

Africa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda
Red Cross on alert as Uganda confirms first Ebola case
Kampala/Nairobi/Geneva, 12 June – Red Cross teams are on high alert following the confirmation of the first Ebola case in Uganda. According to the Ministry of Health, a five-year-old boy from Uganda returned from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (D …
12 June 2019

IBM, KPMG, Merck and Walmart to collaborate as part of FDA’s program to evaluate the use of blockchain to protect pharmaceutical product integrity

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

IBM, KPMG, Merck and Walmart to collaborate as part of FDA’s program to evaluate the use of blockchain to protect pharmaceutical product integrity
The FDA pilot program explores innovative and emerging approaches for the tracing and verification of prescription products
ARMONK, N.Y., NEW YORK, KENILWORTH, N.J., and BENTONVILLE, Ark., June 13, 2019 /PRNewswire/ — IBM (NYSE: IBM), KPMG, Merck (NYSE: MRK), and Walmart (NYSE: WMT) today announced that the companies have been selected by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be included in a program in support of the U.S. Drug Supply Chain Security Act (DSCSA) that addresses requirements to identify, track and trace prescription medicines and vaccines distributed within the United States.

The program is intended to assist drug supply chain stakeholders, including FDA, in developing the electronic, interoperable system that will identify and trace certain prescription drugs as they are distributed within the United States.

“Our supply chain strategy, planning and logistics are built around the customers and patients we serve,” said Craig Kennedy, Senior Vice President, Supply Chain, at Merck, which is known as MSD outside the U.S. and Canada. “Reliable and verifiable supply helps improve confidence among all the stakeholders—especially patients—while also strengthening the foundation of our business.”

Each company brings unique expertise to the project, which will create a shared permissioned blockchain network that allows real-time monitoring of products. The proposed network is intended to help reduce the time needed to track and trace inventory; allow timely retrieval of reliable distribution information; increase accuracy of data shared among network members; and help determine the integrity of products in the distribution chain, including whether products are kept at the correct temperature.

“With successful Blockchain pilots in pork, mangoes and leafy greens that provide enhanced traceability, we are looking forward to the same success and transparency in the biopharmaceutical supply chain,” said Karim Bennis, Walmart’s Vice President of Strategic Planning and Implementation, Health and Wellness. “We believe we have to go further than offering great products that help our customers live better at everyday low prices. Our customers also need to know they can trust us to help ensure products are safe. This pilot and U.S. Drug Supply Chain Security Act requirements will help us do just that.”

Blockchain is designed to establish a permanent record and may be integrated with existing supply chain and traceability systems…

Emergencies

Emergencies

 

POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

Regular Weekly Update not published.

 

::::::
::::::

Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies [to 15 Jun 2019]

Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: 45: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu 12 June 2019
:: Disease Outbreak News (DONs) Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo 13 June 2019
[See Ebola DRC above for detail]

Bangladesh – Rohingya crisis – No new digest announcements identified
Mozambique floods – No new digest announcements identified
Myanmar – No new digest announcements identified
Nigeria – No new digest announcements identified
Somalia – No new digest announcements identified
South Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Syrian Arab Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

 

::::::

WHO Grade 2 Emergencies [to 15 Jun 2019]

Central African Republic
:: The Central African Republic prepares for Ebola response
12 June 2018 – Bangui “The Central African Republic has made a good start in preparing for a possible Ebola outbreak,” said Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO), at the end of a short visit to the country. “But we must remain vigilant, and consolidate the work started.”…

Afghanistan – No new digest announcements identified
Cameroon – No new digest announcements identified
Cyclone Idai – No new digest announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new digest announcements identified
Iran floods 2019 – No new digest announcements identified
Iraq – No new digest announcements identified
Libya – No new digest announcements identified
Malawi floods – No new digest announcements identified
MERS-CoV – No new digest announcements identified
Niger – No new digest announcements identified
occupied Palestinian territory – No new digest announcements identified
Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Ukraine – No new digest announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new digest announcements identified

 

::::::

WHO Grade 1 Emergencies [to 15 Jun 2019]

Afghanistan – No new digest announcements identified
Angola – No new digest announcements identified
Chad – No new digest announcements identified
Djibouti – No new digest announcements identified
Indonesia – Sulawesi earthquake 2018 – No new digest announcements identified
Kenya – No new digest announcements identified
Mali – No new digest announcements identified
Namibia – viral hepatitis – No new digest announcements identified
Tanzania – No new digest announcements identified

 

::::::
::::::

UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic
:: Syria: Situation Report 5: Recent Developments in Northwestern Syria (as of 14 June 2019)
HIGHLIGHTS
:: Violence in northwest Syria continued over the last ten days throughout Eid al Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan.
Airstrikes and shelling in southern Idleb, northern Hama and western Aleppo governorates is putting civilians at risk and impeding the delivery of assistance.
:: Humanitarian response is ongoing with hundreds of thousands of people receiving critical assistance essential for their survival. Violence in areas directly affected by conflict is driving displacement into densely-populated areas, putting a strain on service delivery for partners.
:: A further escalation of violence, triggering waves of displacement and complicating humanitarian access and provision of humanitarian assistance risks overwhelming an already stretched response.

Yemen
:: Yemen: Flash floods Flash Update No. 1 As of 11 June 2019

 

::::::

UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
CYCLONE IDAI and Kenneth
:: Mozambique: “Three months on, the world’s attention has moved on. We cannot let this happen” 14 Jun 2019

 

::::::
::::::

WHO & Regional Offices [to 15 Jun 2019]

WHO & Regional Offices [to 15 Jun 2019]
13 June 2019 News release
New study finds no link between HIV infection and contraceptive methods

11 June 2019 News release
Collaboration between France and WHO to realize the vision of the WHO Academy
Today Emmanuel Macron, President of the French Republic and Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General met at WHO Headquarters in Geneva signed a Declaration of Intent to establish the WHO Academy that will revolutionize lifelong learning in health. The Academy aims to reach millions of people with innovative learning via a state-of-the-art digital learning experience platform at a campus in Lyon and embedded in the six WHO regions. The WHO Academy Lyon hub will feature high-tech learning environments, a world-class health emergencies simulation centre and collaboration spaces for learning co-design, research and innovation…

 

::::::

Weekly Epidemiological Record, 14 June 2019, vol. 94, 24 (pp. 281–288)
:: Progress towards measles elimination in Pakistan, 2000–2018

 

::::::

WHO Regional Offices
Selected Press Releases, Announcements
WHO African Region AFRO
:: Promising results from malaria-prevention medication among children in Borno State, Nigeria
14 June 2019
:: New WHO scorecard shows poor progress of the viral hepatitis response in the African region
14 June 2019
:: Cross border disease outbreak simulation exercise reinforces preparedness in East Africa
12 June 2019
:: Confirmation of case of ebola virus disease in Uganda 11 June 2019
:: Local leaders help turn the tide on Ebola 10 June 2019

WHO Region of the Americas PAHO
:: PAHO calls for blood donation systems to be strengthened to ensure 100% voluntary donations (06/12/2019)

WHO South-East Asia Region SEARO
No new digest content identified.

WHO European Region EURO
:: Ljubljana Statement on Health Equity agreed – High-level Conference on Health Equity closes 14-06-2019
:: Are you a leader for road safety? The Region marks United Nations Global Road Safety Week 12-06-2019
:: High-level Conference on Health Equity opens – achieve, accelerate and influence 12-06-2019
:: New report shows persistent environment and health inequalities in Europe 12-06-2019
:: Five conditions must be met to achieve health equity, says WHO 11-06-2019

WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region EMRO
:: HIV outbreak in Sindh, Pakistan 13 June 2019
:: WHO delivers 10 ambulances to support medical services in hard-to-reach areas in Iraq
12 June 2019
:: WHO support reaches flood victims in Ghat, southern Libya 10 June 2019

WHO Western Pacific Region
:: Dengue increase likely during rainy season: WHO warns 11 June 2019 News release
Several Asian countries are experiencing unusually high numbers of dengue cases for this time of year. With the rainy season approaching, the World Health Organization (WHO) is calling for action to minimize illness and deaths from dengue…

CDC/ACIP [to 15 Jun 2019]

CDC/ACIP [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.cdc.gov/media/index.html
https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/index.html
Wednesday, June 12, 2019
CDC Activates Emergency Operations Center for Ebola Outbreak in Eastern DRC
[See Ebola – DRC above for detail]

Tuesday, June 11, 2019
First case of Ebola virus disease diagnosed in Uganda

MMWR News Synopsis for Friday, June 14, 2019
Notes from the Field: Administration of Expired Injectable Influenza Vaccines Reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System — United States, July 2018–March 2019

Announcements

Announcements

Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://alleninstitute.org/what-we-do/frontiers-group/news-press/
No new digest content identified.

BMGF – Gates Foundation [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases
JUNE 13, 2019
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Public Statement on the ECHO Trial Results
SOUTH AFRICA, June 13, 2019 – Today, the Evidence for Contraceptive Options and HIV Outcomes (ECHO) trial* released study results comparing the relative risk of HIV acquisition among women using one of the following three contraceptive methods: the injectable contraceptive DMPA-IM; the Jadelle LNG-implant; and a copper intrauterine device, or IUD.
“We’re encouraged the ECHO trial found no substantial difference in HIV acquisition among the methods tested because millions of women around the world rely on modern contraception to make informed decisions about their health and futures,” said Chris Elias, President of Global Development at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. “Nonetheless, it’s concerning to see persistently high HIV incidence among women seeking contraception in eastern and southern Africa. This study underscores the urgent need to improve integrated care that includes high-quality counseling and a range of contraceptive and HIV prevention options.”…

Bill & Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://www.gatesmri.org/
The Bill & Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute is a non-profit biotech organization. Our mission is to develop products to fight malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrheal diseases—three major causes of mortality, poverty, and inequality in developing countries. The world has unprecedented scientific tools at its disposal; now is the time to use them to save the lives of the world’s poorest people
No new digest content identified.

CARB-X [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://carb-x.org/
CARB-X is a non-profit public-private partnership dedicated to accelerating antibacterial research to tackle the global rising threat of drug-resistant bacteria.
No new digest content identified.

CEPI – Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://cepi.net/
No new digest content identified.

Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://clintonhealthaccess.org/about/
No new digest content identified.

EDCTP [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.edctp.org/
The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) aims to accelerate the development of new or improved drugs, vaccines, microbicides and diagnostics against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as well as other poverty-related and neglected infectious diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on phase II and III clinical trials
No new digest content identified.

Emory Vaccine Center [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.vaccines.emory.edu/
No new digest content identified.

European Medicines Agency [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/
News and press releases
No new digest content identified.

European Vaccine Initiative [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.euvaccine.eu/news-events
No new digest content identified.

FDA [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/default.htm
No new digest content identified.

Fondation Merieux [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.fondation-merieux.org/
No new digest content identified.

Gavi [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://www.gavi.org/
11 June 2019
New management training for immunisation leaders kicks-off at the University of Yaounde
National teams from six Gavi-supported countries will attend the first forum of the nine-month programme
Yaounde, 10 June 2019 – Yale’s Global Health Leadership Initiative (GHLI), the University of Yaoundé I (UYI), PATH, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance have joined forces to strengthen leadership and management of national immunisation programmes in French-speaking Gavi-supported countries. The Expanded Program on Immunisation Leadership and Management Programme (EPI LAMP) is an innovative management training course to improve the managerial capacity of governments to support Gavi’s mission to ensure every child is protected with life-saving vaccines.
The program reflects a commitment by all partners to ensure that French-speaking healthcare professionals have access to world-class leadership and management education.  The program builds on a successful EPILAMP for English-speaking delegations hosted last year at the University of Global Health Equity (UGHE) in Rwanda. From 2016-2020, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance aims to immunise 300 million children worldwide, saving 5-6 million lives. Achieving this goal requires effective planning, implementation and monitoring of immunisation programmes.
This year, the program will include 26 participants from six countries: Cameroon, Burkina Faso, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Congo Republic, and Guinea…

GHIT Fund [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://www.ghitfund.org/newsroom/press
GHIT was set up in 2012 with the aim of developing new tools to tackle infectious diseases that devastate the world’s poorest people. Other funders include six Japanese pharmaceutical
No new digest content identified.

Global Fund [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://www.theglobalfund.org/en/news/
News
Global Fund Applauds South Africa’s New Human Rights Plan for HIV and TB
13 June 2019

Voices
Our Global Health Security is Only as Strong as our Weakest Link
12 June 2019

Hilleman Laboratories [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.hillemanlabs.org/
No new digest content identified.

Human Vaccines Project [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.humanvaccinesproject.org/media/press-releases/
Press Release
2019 Michelson Prize Winners Push the Next Frontiers of Human Immunology
June 13, 2019 – The Michelson Medical Research Foundation and the Human Vaccines Project are awarding the 2019 Michelson Prizes to three young scientists, who will each receive $150,000 for their novel approaches toward deciphering how the human immune system fights disease…

IAVI [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://www.iavi.org/newsroom
No new digest content identified.

IFFIm
http://www.iffim.org/library/news/press-releases/
No new digest content identified.

IFRC [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://media.ifrc.org/ifrc/news/press-releases/
Selected Press Releases, Announcements
Africa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda
Red Cross on alert as Uganda confirms first Ebola case
Kampala/Nairobi/Geneva, 12 June – Red Cross teams are on high alert following the confirmation of the first Ebola case in Uganda. According to the Ministry of Health, a five-year-old boy from Uganda returned from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (D …
12 June 2019

IVAC [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/ivac/index.html
No new digest content identified.

IVI [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.ivi.int/
IVI News & Announcements
No new digest content identified.

JEE Alliance [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://www.jeealliance.org/
Selected News and Events
AHSC will focus on research and development for health security at the Global Health Security Conference 2019 in Sydney
13.6.2019
The first Global Health Security Conference on 18 – 20 June 2019 in Sydney aims to bring together practitioners, researchers, educators, representatives and decision-makers across the fields of…

MSF/Médecins Sans Frontières [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.msf.org/
Selected News; Project Updates, Reports
DRC Ebola outbreaks
Crisis update – June 2019
Crisis Update 13 Jun 2019

Democratic Republic of Congo
Restoring trust among communities fearful of Ebola
Project Update 13 Jun 2019

HIV/AIDS
HIV project in South Africa reaches 90-90-90 target one year ahead o…
Press Release 12 Jun 2019

Mediterranean migration
European policies continue to claim lives on the Mediterranean Sea
Press Release 12 Jun 2019

Democratic Republic of Congo
Massive mobilisation urgently needed to curb fast-spreading measles…
Press Release 11 Jun 2019

NIH [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases
June 10, 2019
NIH welcomes 50 young scientists to year-long medical research scholar program
— Participants receive mentored training and conduct research in areas that match their personal interests and goals.

PATH [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://www.path.org/media-center/
No new digest content identified.

Sabin Vaccine Institute [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.sabin.org/updates/pressreleases
No new digest content identified.

UNAIDS [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.unaids.org/en
Selected Press Releases/Reports/Statements
14 June 2019
Positive health, education and gender equality outcomes for Myanmar youth

13 June 2019
Stepping up for China’s AIDS response

11 June 2019
Leadership as a process of influence

Responding to the HIV outbreak in Larkana

Women who inject drugs more likely to be living with HIV

UNICEF [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://www.unicef.org/media/press-releases
Selected Statements, Press Releases, Reports
Press release
Record number of people facing critical lack of food in South Sudan
61 per cent of the population are projected to face crisis levels of food insecurity or worse
14/06/2019

Press release
One woman and six newborns die every two hours from complications during pregnancy or childbirth in Yemen – UNICEF
14/06/2019

Press release
UNICEF launches swift response as first Ebola cases and deaths confirmed in Uganda
5-year-old boy and his grandmother die from Ebola virus in western Uganda
13/06/2019

Press release
Sweden, Norway, Iceland, Estonia and Portugal rank highest for family-friendly policies in OECD and EU countries
Switzerland, Greece, Cyprus, United Kingdom and Ireland among lowest ranking countries
12/06/2019

Statement
Children killed, injured, detained and abused amid escalating violence and unrest in Sudan
Statement by UNICEF Executive Director Henrietta Fore
11/06/2019

Vaccine Confidence Project [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.vaccineconfidence.org/
Confidence Commentary:
How to combat health misinformation online: A research roundup
Posted on 15 Jun, 2019
Highlights of an article published by the Harvard Kennedy School of Government Center for Media and Policy  Full article here  By Chloe Reichel June 13, 2019

Vaccine Education Center – Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.chop.edu/centers-programs/vaccine-education-center
No new digest content identified.

Wellcome Trust [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://wellcome.ac.uk/news
No new digest content identified.

The Wistar Institute [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://www.wistar.org/news/press-releases
No new digest content identified.

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.oie.int/en/for-the-media/press-releases/2019/
14/06/19
Read all the press releases of the 87th OIE General Session

Read all the SG News of the 87th OIE General Session

Closing of the 87th General Session of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)
May 31, 2019 | Press Release
26 – 31 May 2019
At the closing of the 87th OIE General Session, countries commit to responding to the sanitary challenges of today and tomorrow, protecting animals and the livelihoods of families who depend on them, by the adoption of several resolutions. From the new OIE international Standards adopted, to the impact of external factors in the Veterinary Services, the state of play of the global animal health situation with a particular focus on the devastating African swine fever, official disease status recognised, and an update on the fight against antimicrobial resistance, here is an overview…

 

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BIO [to 15 Jun 2019]
https://www.bio.org/insights/press-release
No new digest content identified.

DCVMN – Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturers Network [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.dcvmn.org/
20 June 2019
Webinar: GAVI / WHO on Vaccine Innovation Priorities II

IFPMA [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.ifpma.org/resources/news-releases/
No new digest content identified.

PhRMA [to 15 Jun 2019]
http://www.phrma.org/press-room
No new digest content identified.

Journal Watch

Journal Watch
Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review continues its weekly scanning of key peer-reviewed journals to identify and cite articles, commentary and editorials, books reviews and other content supporting our focus on vaccine ethics and policy. Journal Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues the Center is actively tracking. We selectively provide full text of some editorial and comment articles that are specifically relevant to our work. Successful access to some of the links provided may require subscription or other access arrangement unique to the publisher.
If you would like to suggest other journal titles to include in this service, please contact David Curry at: david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org

Evaluating medicine prices, availability and affordability in Bangladesh using World Health Organisation and Health Action International methodology

BMC Health Services Research
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmchealthservres/content
(Accessed 15 Jun 2019)

 

Research article
Evaluating medicine prices, availability and affordability in Bangladesh using World Health Organisation and Health Action International methodology
Previous studies have shown limited availability of medicines in health facilities in Bangladesh. While medicines are dispensed for free in public facilities, they are paid out-of-pocket in private pharmacies….
Authors: Lombe Kasonde, David Tordrup, Aliya Naheed, Wu Zeng, Shyfuddin Ahmed and Zaheer-Ud-Din Babar
Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2019 19:383
Published on: 13 June 2019

Accuracy and quality of immunization data in Iran: findings from data quality self-assessment survey in 2017

BMC Health Services Research
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmchealthservres/content
(Accessed 15 Jun 2019)

 

Research article
Accuracy and quality of immunization data in Iran: findings from data quality self-assessment survey in 2017
The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy and quality of immunization data on the pentavalent (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib)) and MMR vaccines as the a…
Authors: Manoochehr Karami, Salman Khazaei, Abbas Babaei, Fatemeh Abdoli Yaghini, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya and Seyed Mohsen Zahraei
Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2019 19:371
Published on: 11 June 2019

Necrotizing fasciitis following measles vaccine administration: a case report

BMC Infectious Diseases
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content
(Accessed 15 Jun 2019)

 

Case report
Necrotizing fasciitis following measles vaccine administration: a case report
The occurrence of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in national immunization programmes is very rare; however, if they occur causality assessment is conducted to identify the associated cause. In th…
Authors: E. E. Isere, A. A. Fatiregun, O. A. Olubosede, M. O. Dosumu and E. O. Bello
Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:524
Published on: 14 June 2019

The impact of childhood pneumococcal vaccination on hospital admissions in England: a whole population observational study

BMC Infectious Diseases
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content
(Accessed 15 Jun 2019)

 

Research article
The impact of childhood pneumococcal vaccination on hospital admissions in England: a whole population observational study
Pneumococcal infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We use routine hospital admissions data and time-series modelling analysis to estimate the impact of the seven and thirteen valent…
Authors: Tinevimbo Shiri, Noel D. McCarthy and Stavros Petrou
Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:510
Published on: 10 June 2019

Serologic testing of randomly selected children after hepatitis B vaccination: a cross-sectional population-based study in Lao People’s Democratic Republic

BMC Infectious Diseases
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content
(Accessed 15 Jun 2019)

 

Research article
Serologic testing of randomly selected children after hepatitis B vaccination: a cross-sectional population-based study in Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Population immunity against hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Lao People’s Demographic Republic (PDR) has not been examined since the national HBV vaccination program was started in 2002. Vaccine has been observed to…
Authors: Masataro Norizuki, Tomomi Kitamura, Kenichi Komada, Masaya Sugiyama, Masashi Mizokami, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Vilasak Som-Oulay, Phengta Vongphrachanh, Munehito Machida, Koji Wada, Koji Ishii, Tomoko Kiyohara, Takaji Wakita and Masahiko Hachiya
Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:507
Published on: 10 June 2019

Who should decide about children’s and adolescents’ participation in health research? The views of children and adults in rural Kenya

BMC Medical Ethics
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcmedethics/content
(Accessed 15 Jun 2019)

 

Research article
|   14 June 2019
Who should decide about children’s and adolescents’ participation in health research? The views of children and adults in rural Kenya
International research guidance has shifted towards an increasingly proactive inclusion of children and adolescents in health research in recognition of the need for more evidence-based treatment. Strong calls have been made for the active involvement of children and adolescents in developing research proposals and policies, including in decision-making about research participation. Much evidence and debate on this topic has focused on high-income settings, while the greatest health burdens and research gaps occur in low-middle income countries, highlighting the need to take account of voices from more diverse contexts.
Authors: Vicki Marsh, Nancy Mwangome, Irene Jao, Katharine Wright, Sassy Molyneux and Alun Davies

Vaccine Coverage among Children with and without Intellectual Disabilities in the UK: Cross Sectional Study

BMC Public Health
http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles
(Accessed 15 Jun 2019)

 

Research article
Vaccine Coverage among Children with and without Intellectual Disabilities in the UK: Cross Sectional Study
Universal childhood vaccination programmes form a core component of child health policies in most countries, including the UK. Achieving high coverage rates of vaccines is critical for establishing ‘herd immun…
Authors: Eric Emerson, Janet Robertson, Susannah Baines and Chris Hatton
Citation: BMC Public Health 2019 19:748
Published on: 13 June 2019

Essential newborn care practice at four primary health facilities in conflict affected areas of Bossaso, Somalia: a cross-sectional study

Conflict and Health
http://www.conflictandhealth.com/
[Accessed 15 Jun 2019]

 

Research
Essential newborn care practice at four primary health facilities in conflict affected areas of Bossaso, Somalia: a cross-sectional study
Newborn mortality is increasingly concentrated in contexts of conflict and political instability. However, there are limited guidelines and data on the availability and quality of newborn care in conflict sett…
Authors: Ribka Amsalu, Catherine N. Morris, Kingsley Chukwumalu, Michelle Hynes, Shehryar Janjua, Alexia Couture, Aimee Summers, Amy Cannon, Erin N. Hulland and Sabine Baunach
Citation: Conflict and Health 2019 13:27
Published on: 13 June 2019

Collaboration between key populations in a global partnership for health and human rights: Lessons learned from ‘Bridging the Gaps’

Global Public Health
Volume 14, 2019 Issue 8
http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rgph20/current

 

Article
Collaboration between key populations in a global partnership for health and human rights: Lessons learned from ‘Bridging the Gaps’
Daniel H. de Vries, Ellen Eiling, Natassia Brenman & Mark Vermeulen
Pages: 1125-1138
Published online: 22 Nov 2018

Special Feature: Making humanitarian action work for women and girls

Humanitarian Exchange Magazine
Number 75, May 2019
https://odihpn.org/magazine/communication-community-engagement-humanitarian-response/

 

Special Feature: Making humanitarian action work for women and girls
by HPN May 2019
The theme of this edition of Humanitarian Exchange, co-edited with Women Deliver, is making humanitarian action work for women and girls. Despite gains, including commitments made at the World Humanitarian Summit, there is still much to be done to address the gendered impacts of humanitarian crises and improve gender-sensitive humanitarian action.

In the lead article, Jacqueline Paul advocates for feminist humanitarian action based on evidence that improvements in women’s socio-economic status can reduce excess mortality among women after shocks. Jean Kemitare, Juliet Were and Jennate Eoomkham look at the role of local women’s rights organisations in preventing and responding to violence against women and girls, and Marcy Hersh and Diana Abou Abbas highlight opportunities for more concrete action on sexual and reproductive health in emergencies.

Citing experience from Vanuatu, Jane Newnham explains how women will choose to use contraceptives even during a humanitarian response, when services and counselling are delivered in an appropriate and responsive way. Drawing on experience in Bangladesh, Tamara Fetters and colleagues challenge the belief that abortion is a non-essential service, or too complicated for humanitarian actors to provide. Darcy Ataman, Shannon Johnson, Justin Cikuru and Jaime Cundy reflect on an innovative programme using music therapy to help survivors of trauma.

Emilie Rees Smith, Emma Symonds and Lauryn Oates highlight lessons from the STAGE education programme in Afghanistan, and Degan Ali and Deqa Saleh outline how African Development Solutions is helping women and girls take on leadership and decision-making roles in Somalia. Fiona Samuels and Taveeshi Gupta explore patterns of suicide among young people in Vietnam, with a particular focus on girls, and Subhashni Raj, Brigitte Laboukly and Shantony Moli illustrate the importance of a gendered approach to community-based disaster risk reduction in the South-West Pacific. Nicola Jones, Workneh Yadete and Kate Pincock draw on research in Ethiopia to explore the gender- and age-specific vulnerabilities of adolescents. The edition ends with an article by Julie Rialet-Cislaghi on how humanitarian responses can better address child marriage.

Impact of past and on-going changes on climate and weather on vector-borne diseases transmission: a look at the evidence

Infectious Diseases of Poverty
http://www.idpjournal.com/content
[Accessed 15 Jun 2019]

 

Scoping Review
Impact of past and on-going changes on climate and weather on vector-borne diseases transmission: a look at the evidence
The climate variables that directly influence vector-borne diseases’ ecosystems are mainly temperature and rainfall. This is not only because the vectors bionomics are strongly dependent upon these variables, …
Authors: Florence Fouque and John C. Reeder
Citation: Infectious Diseases of Poverty 2019 8:51
Published on: 13 June 2019

Applying an equity lens to time trends in maternal and child health in Brazil: 1982–2015 plus Cohort profile up-date: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort follow-up at 22 years

International Journal of Epidemiology
Volume 48, Issue Supplement_1, April 2019
https://academic.oup.com/ije/issue/48/Supplement_1

 

SUPPLEMENT
Applying an equity lens to time trends in maternal and child health in Brazil: 1982–2015 plus Cohort profile up-date: The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort follow-up at 22 years

Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV Infection US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

JAMA
June 11, 2019, Vol 321, No. 22, Pages 2143-2252
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/issue.aspx

 

Recommendation Statement
Preexposure Prophylaxis for the Prevention of HIV InfectionUS Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement
US Preventive Services Task Force
free access has active quiz has audio
This 2019 Recommendation Statement from the US Preventive Services Task Force recommends offering preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with effective antiretroviral therapy to persons at high risk of HIV acquisition (A recommendation).
Audio Interview: Screening for HIV infection and Use of Preexposure Prophylaxis for Prevention of HIV Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statements
Editorial
HIV Screening and Preexposure Prophylaxis GuidelinesFollowing the Evidence
Hyman Scott, MD; Paul A. Volberding, MD
Audio Interview: HIV Screening and Preexposure Prophylaxis Guidelines
New USPSTF Guidelines for HIV Screening and Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)Straight A’s
Rochelle P. Walensky, MD, MPH; A. David Paltiel, PhD, MBA

Of Parachutes and Participant Protection: Moving Beyond Quality to Advance Effective Research Ethics Oversight

Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics
Volume 14 Issue 3, July 2019
http://journals.sagepub.com/toc/jre/current

Of Parachutes and Participant Protection: Moving Beyond Quality to Advance Effective Research Ethics Oversight
Holly Fernandez Lynch, Stuart Nicholls, Michelle N. Meyer, Holly A. Taylor, For the Consortium to Advance Effective Research Ethics Oversight (AEREO)

 

First Published December 12, 2018; pp. 190–196

 

The Contribution of Ethics Review to Protection of Human Participants: Comment on “Measuring the Quality and Performance of Institutional Review Boards”

Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics
Volume 14 Issue 3, July 2019
http://journals.sagepub.com/toc/jre/current

The Contribution of Ethics Review to Protection of Human Participants: Comment on “Measuring the Quality and Performance of Institutional Review Boards”
Christine Grady

First Published March 21, 2019; pp. 197–199

 

Pharmacovigilance systems in resource-limited settings: an evaluative case study of Sierra Leone

Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://joppp.biomedcentral.com/
[Accessed 15 Jun 2019]

 

Research
|   11 June 2019
Pharmacovigilance systems in resource-limited settings: an evaluative case study of Sierra Leone
Few low and middle-income countries (LMIC) have fully operational pharmacovigilance structures, systems and legal framework to collect and collate safety data and evaluate the risks and benefits by active and passive approaches. However, in a LMIC such as Sierra Leone, the capacity to manage the risks by taking appropriate preventative actions to help inform therapeutic decisions, promote rational use of medicines, guide risk management and communications is gradually growing but yet to be fully optimized. This study sought to assess the current status of pharmacovigilance in Sierra Leone since it became the 87th member of the World Health Organisation International Drug Monitoring Programme.
Authors: Onome T. Abiri and Wiltshire C. N. Johnson

Contemporary vaccination policy in the European Union: tensions and dilemmas

Journal of Public Health Policy
Volume 40, Issue 2, June 2019
https://link.springer.com/journal/41271/40/2

 

Viewpoint
Contemporary vaccination policy in the European Union: tensions and dilemmas
Katharina T. Paul, Kathrin Loer
Abstract
This paper seeks to contribute to a more nuanced discourse on vaccination policy. Current polarization between either mandatory and entirely voluntary is misleading, as virtually all immunization programs feature a combination of instruments that comprise mandatory and voluntary elements. We develop this argument by presenting five case studies from the European Union (EU). By systematically acknowledging the nuances of political and institutional varieties, we build the case for reframing the terms of the debate in the EU and beyond.

Gender inequality and restrictive gender norms: framing the challenges to health

The Lancet
Jun 15, 2019 Volume 393Number 10189p2359-2468, e42-e43
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

 

Series
Gender Equality, Norms, and Health
Gender inequality and restrictive gender norms: framing the challenges to health
Lori Heise at el, on behalf of the Gender Equality, Norms and Health Steering Committee
Summary
Gender is not accurately captured by the traditional male and female dichotomy of sex. Instead, it is a complex social system that structures the life experience of all human beings. This paper, the first in a Series of five papers, investigates the relationships between gender inequality, restrictive gender norms, and health and wellbeing. Building upon past work, we offer a consolidated conceptual framework that shows how individuals born biologically male or female develop into gendered beings, and how sexism and patriarchy intersect with other forms of discrimination, such as racism, classism, and homophobia, to structure pathways to poor health. We discuss the ample evidence showing the far-reaching consequences of these pathways, including how gender inequality and restrictive gender norms impact health through differential exposures, health-related behaviours and access to care, as well as how gender-biased health research and health-care systems reinforce and reproduce gender inequalities, with serious implications for health…

Principles of and strategies for germline gene therapy

Nature Medicine
Volume 25 Issue 6, June 2019
https://www.nature.com/nm/volumes/25/issues/5

 

Perspective | 03 June 2019
Principles of and strategies for germline gene therapy
Don P. Wolf, Paul A. Mitalipov & Shoukhrat M. Mitalipov
Abstract
Monogenic disorders occur at a high frequency in human populations and are commonly inherited through the germline. Unfortunately, once the mutation has been transmitted to a child, only limited treatment options are available in most cases. However, means of correcting disease-causing nuclear and mitochondrial DNA mutations in gametes or preimplantation embryos have now been developed and are commonly referred to as germline gene therapy (GGT). We will discuss these novel strategies and provide a path forward for safe, high-efficiency GGT that may provide a promising new paradigm for preventing the passage of deleterious genes from parent to child.

CCR5-∆32 is deleterious in the homozygous state in humans

Nature Medicine
Volume 25 Issue 6, June 2019
https://www.nature.com/nm/volumes/25/issues/5

 

Brief Communication | 03 June 2019
CCR5-∆32 is deleterious in the homozygous state in humans
Individuals homozygous for the CCR5-∆32 allele have a 21% increase in mortality rate in the UK Biobank cohort. In light of the CRISPR-baby scandal, this work highlights the need for understanding the unintended consequences of introducing mutations in humans.
Xinzhu Wei & Rasmus Nielsen