Meningitis vaccine shortage and the 2019 Hajj mass gathering: market dynamics and epidemic control

Journal of Travel Medicine
Volume 26, Issue 5, 2019,
https://academic.oup.com/jtm/issue/26/5

 

Rapid Communication
Meningitis vaccine shortage and the 2019 Hajj mass gathering: market dynamics and epidemic control
Shahul H Ebrahim, MD, MSc, PhD; Abdullah M Assiri, MD, FACP; Ziad A Memish, MD, FRCPC, FRCPL, FRCPE, FACP, FFPH
Journal of Travel Medicine, Volume 26, Issue 5, 2019, taz039, https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taz039
Extract
Saudi Arabia implements two meningococcal meningitis epidemic control strategies for Hajj pilgrims. Visa-linked meningococcal vaccination certification (A, C, Y, W-135) is mandatory for all pilgrims. In addition, for those arriving from the `meningitis belt countries’, a single dose of oral ciprofloxacin is administered at arrival ports prior to the immigration process to eliminate meningococcal nasopharyngeal carriage (1). Hajj and Umrah constitute the largest annual mass gathering of pilgrims from over 180 countries with a projected growth from current 3 million to 30 million by 2030 (2). With these dual approaches, meningococcal carriage rates have been…