From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics
First Published July 12, 2019
Research Article
Legal and Policy Responses to Vaccine-Preventable Disease Outbreaks
L Barraza, D Reiss, P Freeman –
Abstract
Laws and policies are vital tools in preventing outbreaks and limiting the further spread of disease, but they can vary in content and implementation. This manuscript provides insight into challenges in responding to recent vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks by examining legislative changes in California, policy changes on certain university campuses, and the laws implicated in a measles outbreak in Minnesota.

First Published July 12, 2019
Research Article
Emergency Declarations for Public Health Issues: Expanding Our Definition of Emergency
G Sunshine, N Barrera, AJ Corcoran, M Penn
Abstract
Emergency declarations are a vital legal authority that can activate funds, personnel, and material and change the legal landscape to aid in the response to a public health threat. Traditionally, declarations have been used against immediate and unforeseen threats such as hurricanes, tornadoes, wildfires, and pandemic influenza. Recently, however, states have used emergency declarations to address public health issues that have existed in communities for months and years and have risk factors such as poverty and substance misuse. Leaders in these states have chosen to use emergency powers that are normally reserved for sudden catastrophes to address these enduring public health issues. This article will explore emergency declarations as a legal mechanism for response; describe recent declarations to address hepatitis A and the opioid overdose epidemic; and seek to answer the question of whether it is appropriate to use emergency powers to address public health issues that are not traditionally the basis for an emergency declaration.

 

Cancer
First published: 10 July 2019
https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32379
Original Article
Intent and subsequent initiation of human papillomavirus vaccine among young cancer survivors
B Cherven, SM Castellino, Y Chen, FL Wong, JM York… –
Background
Despite an increased risk of subsequent human papillomavirus (HPV)–related malignancies, HPV vaccine initiation rates among cancer survivors remain critically low. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between HPV vaccine intent and subsequent vaccine initiation among cancer survivors by linking data from a cross‐sectional survey with state‐based immunization registry records.

 

Frontiers in Public Health
Received: 08 Jan 2019; Accepted: 16 Jul 2019.
Methods ARTICLE
Assessing vaccine herd protection by killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccines using different study designs
M Ali, JD Clemens –
Abstract
The population level effectiveness of a vaccine may arise as the result of direct protection of vaccinees and vaccine herd protection, which may protect non-vaccinees, vaccinees, or both. Indirect, total, enhanced and overall vaccine protection are measures of vaccine herd protection. The level of population level effectiveness induced by a vaccine depends on many factors, including the level of vaccine protective efficacy, the magnitude and distribution of vaccine coverage at a point in time and the extent to which different groups mix with one another in the community. Data on vaccine herd protection are important in the assessment of the public health importance and cost-effectiveness of many vaccines. Killed whole-cell (WC) oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been evaluated for herd protection in various study settings, leveraging geographic information system (GIS) tools for the analyses. This article provides a brief description of the herd protective effects of killed WC OCVs measured using various study deigns that include a) individually randomized, controlled clinical trials, b) cluster randomized clinical trials, c) observational cohort studies, and d) observational case-control studies. In all of the study designs, significant herd protection was observed in unvaccinated persons as well as in the community as a whole. The findings of these studies suggest that using killed WC OCV as a public health tool for controlling cholera is impactful and cost-effective.