From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

Epidemiology
[10 Oct 2019]
Article
The use of test-negative controls to monitor vaccine effectiveness: a systematic review of methodology.
H Chua, S Feng, JA Lewnard, SG Sullivan, CC Blyth…
Abstract
BACKGROUND:
The test-negative design is an increasingly popular approach for estimating vaccine effectiveness (VE) due to its efficiency. This review aims to examine published test-negative design studies of VE and to explore similarities and differences in methodological choices for different diseases and vaccines.
METHODS:
We conducted a systematic search on PubMed, Web of Science, and Medline, for studies reporting the effectiveness of any vaccines using a test-negative design. We screened titles and abstracts, and reviewed full texts to identify relevant articles. We created a standardized form for each included article to extract information on the pathogen of interest, vaccine(s) being evaluated, study setting, clinical case definition, choices of cases and controls, and statistical approaches used to estimate VE.
RESULTS:
We identified a total of 348 articles, including studies on VE against influenza virus (n=253), rotavirus (n=48), pneumococcus (n=24), and nine other pathogens. Clinical case definitions used to enroll patients were similar by pathogens of interest but the sets of symptoms that defined them varied substantially. Controls could be those testing negative for the pathogen of interest, those testing positive for non-vaccine type of the pathogen of interest, or a subset of those testing positive for alternative pathogens. Most studies controlled for age, calendar time, and comorbidities.
CONCLUSIONS:
Our review highlights similarities and differences in the application of the test-negative design that deserve further examination. If vaccination reduces disease severity in breakthrough infections, particular care must be taken in interpreting vaccine effectiveness estimates from test-negative design studies.

 

Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
First Online: 12 October 2019
Original Article
Predictors of influenza vaccination among elderly: a cross-sectional survey in Greece
I Dardalas, C Pourzitaki, G Manomenidis, F Malliou… – Aging Clinical and …, 2019
Only a small proportion of those over the age of 60 had received the influenza vaccine. This finding is worrying, as it indicates the impact that a future outbreak of seasonal influenza could exert upon vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for further, better and more evidence-based information from healthcare professionals to achieve greater vaccination coverage in the community.

 

American Journal of Perinatology
DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1697670
Commentary
Measles: There is No Vaccine against Vaccine Phobia
RA McLaren Jr, JL Stein, H Minkoff
Abstract
In 2000, the United States had effectively eliminated endemic measles. Unfortunately, due to misinformation and non-scientific based concerns, the rate of measles vaccination has declined. The United States is in the midst of its largest outbreak of measles since 2014, with 1,095 confirmed cases as of June 2019. The reasons for the re-emergence of measles and what this epidemic illustrates about the anti-vaccine culture in the United States are explored in this article.