Volume 37, Issue 45 Pages 6783-6856 (23 October 2019)
Review article Open access
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine use during humanitarian crises
Kevin van Zandvoort, Francesco Checchi, Emma Diggle, Rosalind M. Eggo, … Stefan Flasche
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common human commensal that causes a sizeable part of the overall childhood mortality in low income settings. Populations affected by humanitarian crises are at especially high risk, because a multitude of risk factors that are enhanced during crises increase pneumococcal transmission and disease severity. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) provide effective protection and have been introduced into the majority of routine childhood immunisation programmes globally, though several barriers have hitherto limited their uptake during humanitarian crises. When PCV coverage cannot be sustained during crises or when PCV has not been part of routine programmes, mass vaccination campaigns offer a quick acting and programmatically feasible bridging solution until services can be restored. However, we currently face a paucity of evidence on which to base the structure of such campaigns. We believe that, now that PCV can be procured at a substantially reduced price through the Humanitarian Mechanism, this lack of information is a remaining hurdle to PCV use in humanitarian crises. Considering the difficulties in conducting research in crises, we propose an evidence generation pathway consisting of primary data collection in combination with mathematical modelling followed by quasi-experimental evaluation of a PCV intervention, which can inform on optimal vaccination strategies that consider age targeting, dosing regimens and impact duration.