COVID-19 in jails and prisons: A neglected infection in a marginalized population

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
http://www.plosntds.org/
(Accessed 27 June 2020)

 

COVID-19 in jails and prisons: A neglected infection in a marginalized population
Carlos Franco-Paredes, Katherine Jankousky, Jonathan Schultz, Jessica Bernfeld, Kimberly Cullen, Nicolas G. Quan, Shelley Kon, Peter Hotez, Andrés F. Henao-Martínez, Martin Krsak
Viewpoints | published 22 Jun 2020 PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008409

Five years of pharmaceutical industry funding of patient organisations in Sweden: Cross-sectional study of companies, patient organisations and drugs

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 27 June 2020]

 

Five years of pharmaceutical industry funding of patient organisations in Sweden: Cross-sectional study of companies, patient organisations and drugs
Shai Mulinari, Andreas Vilhelmsson, Emily Rickard, Piotr Ozieranski
Research Article | published 24 Jun 2020 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0235021

“Explaining” machine learning reveals policy challenges

Science
26 June 2020 Vol 368, Issue 6498
http://www.sciencemag.org/current.dtl

 

Policy Forum
“Explaining” machine learning reveals policy challenges
By Diane Coyle, Adrian Weller
Science26 Jun 2020 : 1433-1434 Restricted Access
The need to make objectives explicit may expose policy trade-offs that had previously been implicit and obscured
Summary
There is a growing demand to be able to “explain” machine learning (ML) systems’ decisions and actions to human users, particularly when used in contexts where decisions have substantial implications for those affected and where there is a requirement for political accountability or legal compliance (1). Explainability is often discussed as a technical challenge in designing ML systems and decision procedures, to improve understanding of what is typically a “black box” phenomenon. But some of the most difficult challenges are nontechnical and raise questions about the broader accountability of organizations using ML in their decision-making. One reason for this is that many decisions by ML systems may exhibit bias, as systemic biases in society lead to biases in data used by the systems (2). But there is another reason, less widely appreciated. Because the quantities that ML systems seek to optimize have to be specified by their users, explainable ML will force policy-makers to be more explicit about their objectives, and thus about their values and political choices, exposing policy trade-offs that may have previously only been implicit and obscured. As the use of ML in policy spreads, there may have to be public debate that makes explicit the value judgments or weights to be used. Merely technical approaches to “explaining” ML will often only be effective if the systems are deployed by trustworthy and accountable organizations.

High overall confidence in childhood vaccination in Norway, slightly lower among the unemployed and those with a lower level of education

Vaccine
Volume 38, Issue 29 Pages 4507-4650 (15 June 2020)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/38/issue/29

 

Research article Open access
High overall confidence in childhood vaccination in Norway, slightly lower among the unemployed and those with a lower level of education
Anneke Steens, Pawel Stefanoff, Anita Daae, Didrik F Vestrheim, Marianne A Riise Bergsaker
Pages 4536-4541

Increasing healthcare workers’ uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination in a tertiary-care pediatric hospital in Greece with a low-cost, tailor-made, multifaceted strategy

Vaccine
Volume 38, Issue 29 Pages 4507-4650 (15 June 2020)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/38/issue/29

 

Research article Abstract only
Increasing healthcare workers’ uptake of seasonal influenza vaccination in a tertiary-care pediatric hospital in Greece with a low-cost, tailor-made, multifaceted strategy
Ioannis Kopsidas, Grammatiki-Christina Tsopela, Stefania Maroudi-Manta, Eleni Kourkouni, … Susan E. Coffin
Pages 4609-4615

Strengthening the Evidence-Based Approach to Guiding Effective Influenza Vaccination Policies

Vaccines — Open Access Journal
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines
(Accessed 27 June 2020)

 

Open Access Communication
Strengthening the Evidence-Based Approach to Guiding Effective Influenza Vaccination Policies
by Giovanna Elisa Calabrò , Maria Lucia Specchia , Sara Boccalini , Donatella Panatto , Caterina Rizzo , Stefano Merler , Anna Maria Ferriero , Maria Luisa Di Pietro , Paolo Bonanni and Chiara de Waure
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030342 (registering DOI) – 27 Jun 2020
Abstract
The availability of several effective and safe vaccines enables health systems to counteract annual influenza epidemics. However, the criteria of appropriateness and sustainability require that each citizen should receive the right vaccine. The value of each vaccine can be assessed within well-known frameworks,

Overview of the Development, Impacts, and Challenges of Live-Attenuated Oral Rotavirus Vaccines

Vaccines — Open Access Journal
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines
(Accessed 27 June 2020)

 

Open Access Review
Overview of the Development, Impacts, and Challenges of Live-Attenuated Oral Rotavirus Vaccines
by Olufemi Samuel Folorunso and Olihile M. Sebolai
Vaccines 2020, 8(3), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030341 (registering DOI) – 27 Jun 2020
Abstract
Safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness are paramount to vaccine development. Following the isolation of rotavirus particles in 1969 and its evidence as an aetiology of severe dehydrating diarrhoea in infants and young children worldwide, the quest to find not only an acceptable and reliabl

Media/Policy Watch

Media/Policy Watch
This watch section is intended to alert readers to substantive news, analysis and opinion from the general media and selected think tanks and similar organizations on vaccines, immunization, global public health and related themes. Media Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues CVEP is actively tracking. This section will grow from an initial base of newspapers, magazines and blog sources, and is segregated from Journal Watch above which scans the peer-reviewed journal ecology.
We acknowledge the Western/Northern bias in this initial selection of titles and invite suggestions for expanded coverage. We are conservative in our outlook in adding news sources which largely report on primary content we are already covering above. Many electronic media sources have tiered, fee-based subscription models for access. We will provide full-text where content is published without restriction, but most publications require registration and some subscription level.

 

The Atlantic
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/
Accessed 27 June 2020
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

BBC
http://www.bbc.co.uk/
Accessed 27 June 2020
Health
Coronavirus: Human trial of new vaccine begins in UK
24 June 2020

 

The Economist
http://www.economist.com/
Accessed 27 June 2020
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

Financial Times
http://www.ft.com/home/uk
Accessed 27 June 2020
Analysis UK politics & policy
Coronavirus: the global race for a vaccine | FT Interview
June 25, 2020

 

Forbes
http://www.forbes.com/
Accessed 27 June 2020
Jun 26, 2020
Frustrated Fauci? How America Lost The First Wave Of The Pandemic
On Friday afternoon, amidst a soaring number of Coivid-19 cases across the country, Dr. Fauci seemed frustrated. Which begs the question: is America is losing ground in the fight against the pandemic?
By Seth Cohen Contributor

Jun 26, 2020
How Does Moderna’s Covid Vaccine Timing Compare With JNJ And Pfizer?
Moderna is seen as the front-runner in the race to develop a Covid-19 vaccine. The clinical-stage biotech company has phase 2 trials underway for its vaccine candidate mRNA-1273 and is expected to commence phase 3 trials in July, in collaboration with the U.S. National Institutes of Health…
By Trefis Team Contributor

 

Foreign Affairs
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/
Accessed 27 June 2020
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

Foreign Policy
http://foreignpolicy.com/
Accessed 27 June 2020 | [No new, unique, relevant content]
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

The Guardian
http://www.guardiannews.com/
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

New Yorker
http://www.newyorker.com/
Accessed 27 June 2020
Letter from the U.K.
The Lancet Editor’s Wild Ride Through the Coronavirus Pandemic
How Richard Horton balances science and politics.
By Sam Knight 27 June 2020

 

New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/
Accessed 27 June 2020
U.S.
Global COVID-19 Fundraising Meeting Raises $6.9 Billion, Leaders Want Vaccine for All
A global fundraising meeting on Saturday raised 6.15 billion euros ($6.9 billion) from the United States, the European Commission and numerous countries to fight COVID-19, with many participants stressing that an eventual vaccine should be available to anyone who needs it.
By Reuters
By Reuters 27 June 2020

Americas
Brazil Signs Agreement to Produce AstraZeneca’s Experimental COVID-19 Vaccine
Brazil announced on Saturday that it had signed a $127 million agreement to start producing locally an experimental vaccine developed by AstraZeneca that has shown promise to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.
By Reuters

U.S.
Vaxart Says Potential COVID-19 Vaccine Picked for ‘Operation Warp Speed’
Vaxart Inc said on Friday it would test its experimental oral COVID-19 vaccine on monkeys infected with the new coronavirus in a study funded by the Trump administration’s vaccine-acceleration program called “Operation Warp Speed”.
By Reuters 26 June 2020

Africa
Africa Urges No ‘Obstacles’ to a COVID-19 Vaccine for All
Governments around the world should “remove all obstacles” to swift and equitable distribution of any successful COVID-19 vaccine, including by making all intellectual property and technologies immediately available, African countries said Thursday.
By The Associated Press 25 June 2020

Asia Pacific
Vaccine Against COVID-19 Not Certain, Maybe in a Year: WHO
It is not certain that scientists will be able to create an effective vaccine against the coronavirus that has caused the COVID-19 pandemic, but it could take a year before one were to be invented, the head of the World Health Organisation said.
By Reuters 25 June 2020

Europe
Germany Increases Donation to WHO but Demands Reforms
Germany on Thursday announced that it is giving half a billion euros to support the World Health Organization amid the COVID-19 pandemic, but said reforms are necessary to make the agency more transparent and accountable.
By The Associated Press 25 June 2020

 

Washington Post
https://www.washingtonpost.com/
Accessed 27 June 2020
Siddhartha Mukherjee says having a coronavirus vaccine by winter is an ‘ambitious goal’
Washington Post Live · Jun 24, 2020

 

Media/Policy Watch

Media/Policy Watch
This watch section is intended to alert readers to substantive news, analysis and opinion from the general media and selected think tanks and similar organizations on vaccines, immunization, global public health and related themes. Media Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues CVEP is actively tracking. This section will grow from an initial base of newspapers, magazines and blog sources, and is segregated from Journal Watch above which scans the peer-reviewed journal ecology.
We acknowledge the Western/Northern bias in this initial selection of titles and invite suggestions for expanded coverage. We are conservative in our outlook in adding news sources which largely report on primary content we are already covering above. Many electronic media sources have tiered, fee-based subscription models for access. We will provide full-text where content is published without restriction, but most publications require registration and some subscription level.

 

The Atlantic
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/
Accessed 27 June 2020
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

BBC
http://www.bbc.co.uk/
Accessed 27 June 2020
Health
Coronavirus: Human trial of new vaccine begins in UK
24 June 2020

 

The Economist
http://www.economist.com/
Accessed 27 June 2020
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

Financial Times
http://www.ft.com/home/uk
Accessed 27 June 2020
Analysis UK politics & policy
Coronavirus: the global race for a vaccine | FT Interview
June 25, 2020

 

Forbes
http://www.forbes.com/
Accessed 27 June 2020
Jun 26, 2020
Frustrated Fauci? How America Lost The First Wave Of The Pandemic
On Friday afternoon, amidst a soaring number of Coivid-19 cases across the country, Dr. Fauci seemed frustrated. Which begs the question: is America is losing ground in the fight against the pandemic?
By Seth Cohen Contributor

Jun 26, 2020
How Does Moderna’s Covid Vaccine Timing Compare With JNJ And Pfizer?
Moderna is seen as the front-runner in the race to develop a Covid-19 vaccine. The clinical-stage biotech company has phase 2 trials underway for its vaccine candidate mRNA-1273 and is expected to commence phase 3 trials in July, in collaboration with the U.S. National Institutes of Health…
By Trefis Team Contributor

 

Foreign Affairs
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/
Accessed 27 June 2020
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

Foreign Policy
http://foreignpolicy.com/
Accessed 27 June 2020 | [No new, unique, relevant content]
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

The Guardian
http://www.guardiannews.com/
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

New Yorker
http://www.newyorker.com/
Accessed 27 June 2020
Letter from the U.K.
The Lancet Editor’s Wild Ride Through the Coronavirus Pandemic
How Richard Horton balances science and politics.
By Sam Knight 27 June 2020

 

New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/
Accessed 27 June 2020
U.S.
Global COVID-19 Fundraising Meeting Raises $6.9 Billion, Leaders Want Vaccine for All
A global fundraising meeting on Saturday raised 6.15 billion euros ($6.9 billion) from the United States, the European Commission and numerous countries to fight COVID-19, with many participants stressing that an eventual vaccine should be available to anyone who needs it.
By Reuters
By Reuters 27 June 2020

Americas
Brazil Signs Agreement to Produce AstraZeneca’s Experimental COVID-19 Vaccine
Brazil announced on Saturday that it had signed a $127 million agreement to start producing locally an experimental vaccine developed by AstraZeneca that has shown promise to fight the COVID-19 pandemic.
By Reuters

U.S.
Vaxart Says Potential COVID-19 Vaccine Picked for ‘Operation Warp Speed’
Vaxart Inc said on Friday it would test its experimental oral COVID-19 vaccine on monkeys infected with the new coronavirus in a study funded by the Trump administration’s vaccine-acceleration program called “Operation Warp Speed”.
By Reuters 26 June 2020

Africa
Africa Urges No ‘Obstacles’ to a COVID-19 Vaccine for All
Governments around the world should “remove all obstacles” to swift and equitable distribution of any successful COVID-19 vaccine, including by making all intellectual property and technologies immediately available, African countries said Thursday.
By The Associated Press 25 June 2020

Asia Pacific
Vaccine Against COVID-19 Not Certain, Maybe in a Year: WHO
It is not certain that scientists will be able to create an effective vaccine against the coronavirus that has caused the COVID-19 pandemic, but it could take a year before one were to be invented, the head of the World Health Organisation said.
By Reuters 25 June 2020

Europe
Germany Increases Donation to WHO but Demands Reforms
Germany on Thursday announced that it is giving half a billion euros to support the World Health Organization amid the COVID-19 pandemic, but said reforms are necessary to make the agency more transparent and accountable.
By The Associated Press 25 June 2020

 

Washington Post
https://www.washingtonpost.com/
Accessed 27 June 2020
Siddhartha Mukherjee says having a coronavirus vaccine by winter is an ‘ambitious goal’
Washington Post Live · Jun 24, 2020

Think Tanks et al

Think Tanks et al

Brookings
http://www.brookings.edu/
Accessed 27 June 2020
Coronavirus (COVID-19) Economics
Global macroeconomic scenarios of the COVID-19 pandemic
Warwick J. McKibbin and Roshen Fernando
Thursday, June 25, 2020

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Economics
The effects of the coronavirus pandemic in emerging market and develop
Pinelopi K. Goldberg and Tristan Reed
Thursday, June 25, 2020

Center for Global Development [to 27 June 2020]
http://www.cgdev.org/page/press-center
Accessed 27 June 2020
[No new relevant content]

Chatham House [to 27 June 2020]
https://www.chathamhouse.org/
[No new relevant content]

 

CSIS
https://www.csis.org/
Accessed 27 June 2020
[No new relevant content]

 

Council on Foreign Relations
http://www.cfr.org/
Accessed 27 June 2020
June 25, 2020
South Africa
Trials for COVID-19 Vaccine Candidate Begin in South Africa
Trials of the Jenner Institute’s vaccine are taking place in Brazil, the United Kingdom Brazil, and South Africa, and the other trials also appear to have begun on June 24. According to the WHO, there are 220 vaccine candidates are in development.
Blog Post by John Campbell Africa in Transition

 

Kaiser Family Foundation
https://www.kff.org/search/?post_type=press-release
Accessed 27 June 2020
[No new relevant content]

 

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review :: 20 June 2020

.– Request an Email Summary: Vaccines and Global Health : The Week in Review is published as a single email summary, scheduled for release each Saturday evening before midnight (EDT in the U.S.). If you would like to receive the email version, please send your request to david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org.

 pdf version A pdf of the current issue is available here: Vaccines and Global Health_The Week in Review_20 June 2020

– blog edition: comprised of the approx. 35+ entries posted below.

– Twitter:  Readers can also follow developments on twitter: @vaxethicspolicy.
.
– Links:  We endeavor to test each link as we incorporate it into any post, but recognize that some links may become “stale” as publications and websites reorganize content over time. We apologize in advance for any links that may not be operative. We believe the contextual information in a given post should allow retrieval, but please contact us as above for assistance if necessary.

Support this knowledge-sharing service: Your financial support helps us cover our costs and to address a current shortfall in our annual operating budget. Click here to donate and thank you in advance for your contribution.

.
David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

Pneumonia vaccine price drops dramatically for lower-income countries thanks to the Gavi pneumococcal Advance Market Commitment

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

Pneumonia vaccine price drops dramatically for lower-income countries thanks to the Gavi pneumococcal Advance Market Commitment
New supply agreement between UNICEF and Serum Institute of India (SII) makes pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) available at US$2.00 per dose, a 43 per cent reduction from the Gavi price at the start of the Advance Market Commitment

Geneva/ New York, 16 June 2020 – Lower-income countries across the world will now be able to access life-saving pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, which protect against the leading cause of pneumonia, for US$ 2 per dose, thanks to a new supply agreement between UNICEF, Gavi’s procurement partner, and the Serum Institute of India (SII). The new price represents a 43 per cent reduction from the Gavi price of US$3.50 at the start of the Advance Market Commitment (AMC).

The supply agreement is the eighth to take place under the Vaccine Alliance’s Advance Market Commitment (AMC) mechanism, and the first to include a developing country manufacturer. Under the agreement, the Indian manufacturer will provide ten million PCV doses to Gavi-supported countries each year for the next ten years.The pneumococcus bacterium is the leading cause of severe pneumonia and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most of these deaths occur in lower-income countries and include a disproportionate number of children under the age of two.

The AMC, which is set to end this year, was launched by Gavi in 2009 – with the support of donors Italy, the United Kingdom, Canada, Russia, Norway and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation – to solve a clear example of market failure: complex vaccines like PCV would normally reach low-income countries, where the disease burden is often highest, ten to 15 years after their introduction in industrialised countries. The AMC mechanism incentivised research and development (R&D), particularly for vaccines suitable for developing country epidemiological contexts, and an expansion in manufacturing capacity to meet demand from lower-income countries while maintaining an affordable price per dose…

Covid-19 Impacts

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

Covid-19 Impacts

World Bank [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/all
[We generally limit coverage to regional and global level initiatives, recognizing that a number of country-level announcements are added each week]
COVID 19: Debt Service Suspension Initiative
This webpage provides a detailed country-by-country breakdown of DSSI participants and the amounts they owe to the creditors. The data will be updated regularly.Overview In April, the World Bank’s Development…
Date: June 19, 2020 Type: Brief

Simulating the Potential Impacts of the COVID-19 School Closures and Learning Outcomes: A set of Global Estimates
School closures due to COVID-19 have left over a billion students out of school. Governments are pursuing a variety of approaches to mitigate school closures. At the same time, all countries are undergoing…
Date: June 18, 2020 Type: Publication

COVID-19 Could Lead to Permanent Loss in Learning and Trillions of Dollars in Lost Earnings
WASHINGTON, June 18, 2020—School closures due to COVID-19 have left most students on the planet out of school – 1.6 billion students at the peak in April 2020.  This global shock to all education…

Vaccination as a social contract

Featured Journal Content

PNAS – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/
Research Article
Vaccination as a social contract
Lars Korn [lars.korn@uni-erfurt.de], Robert Böhm, Nicolas W. Meier, and Cornelia Betsch
PNAS first published June 15, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1919666117
Significance
Vaccines support controlling and eliminating infectious diseases. As most vaccines protect both vaccinated individuals and the society, vaccination is a prosocial act. Its success relies on a large number of contributing individuals. We study whether vaccination is a social contract where individuals reciprocate and reward others who comply with the contract and punish those who don’t. Four preregistered experiments demonstrate that vaccinated individuals indeed show less generosity toward nonvaccinated individuals who violate the social contract. This effect is independent of whether the individuals are members of the same or different social groups. Thus, individuals’ behavior follows the rules of a social contract, which provides a valuable basis for future interventions aiming at increasing vaccine uptake by emphasizing this social contract.
Abstract
Most vaccines protect both the vaccinated individual and the society by reducing the transmission of infectious diseases. In order to eliminate infectious diseases, individuals need to consider social welfare beyond mere self-interest—regardless of ethnic, religious, or national group borders. It has therefore been proposed that vaccination poses a social contract in which individuals are morally obliged to get vaccinated. However, little is known about whether individuals indeed act upon this social contract. If so, vaccinated individuals should reciprocate by being more generous to a vaccinated other. On the contrary, if the other doesn’t vaccinate and violates the social contract, generosity should decline. Three preregistered experiments investigated how a person’s own vaccination behavior, others’ vaccination behavior, and others’ group membership influenced a person’s generosity toward respective others. The experiments consistently showed that especially compliant (i.e., vaccinated) individuals showed less generosity toward nonvaccinated individuals. This effect was independent of the others’ group membership, suggesting an unconditional moral principle. An internal metaanalysis (n = 1,032) confirmed the overall social contract effect. In a fourth experiment (n = 1,212), this pattern was especially pronounced among vaccinated individuals who perceived vaccination as a moral obligation. It is concluded that vaccination is a social contract in which cooperation is the morally right choice. Individuals act upon the social contract, and more so the stronger they perceive it as a moral obligation. Emphasizing the social contract could be a promising intervention to increase vaccine uptake, prevent free riding, and, eventually, support the elimination of infectious diseases.

Global governance for COVID-19 vaccines

Featured Journal Content

 

The Lancet
Jun 20, 2020 Volume 395 Number 10241 p1883-1948, e107-e111
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current
Editorial
Global governance for COVID-19 vaccines
The Lancet
The COVID-19 pandemic has uncovered serious gaps in the health-care systems of many nations. In particular, it exposes a fragmented global governance system that does not have the structures to coordinate the pooling and sharing of resources needed to combat pandemics. Since the early days of the pandemic, medical protectionism has emerged as nations scrambled for their own stocks of personal protective equipment and ventilators. COVID-19 vaccines could be the next example. Already there is a danger of a vaccine bidding war, with governments competing for a limited number of doses, well before a vaccine even reaches the market.

Enormous amounts of public money and resources poured into vaccine research and development have resulted in more than 150 COVID-19 vaccine candidates, ten of which are now in clinical trials. The most advanced candidate is AZD1222, first developed by researchers at the University of Oxford with public and philanthropic funds from CEPI and subsequently licensed to AstraZeneca. Last month, the UK Government boosted its national vaccine programme with £65·5 million towards AZD1222. In return, 30 million doses will be reserved for people in the UK by September, as part of an agreement to deliver 100 million doses in total. The US Government too set aside US$1·2 billion to secure 300 million doses of the same vaccine for use in the USA as part of the national programme Operation Warp Speed to accelerate the development, manufacturing, and distribution of COVID-19 medical countermeasures. But neither a nationalist nor a free-market-driven approach will lead to equal access to vaccines.

In June, France, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands formed the Inclusive Vaccine Alliance to persuade pharmaceutical companies to make COVID-19 vaccines accessible and affordable to EU member states. A portion of vaccines will be made available to low-income countries, including in Africa; yet how big this portion will be, which countries will benefit from it, and who will make these decisions are less clear. Many middle-income countries might be left out.

Political leaders, including Emmanuel Macron, Angela Merkel, and Xi Jinping, have rightly called for COVID-19 vaccines to be a global public good—a people’s vaccine, available to all. At the Global Vaccine Summit on June 4, world leaders including those from the UK, Germany, and Canada, together with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, pledged $750 million to AstraZeneca for 300 million doses of AZD1222 on a no-profit basis, as part of the Gavi Covax Advance Market Commitment. The Serum Institute of India will also produce up to 1 billion doses for low-income and middle-income countries. Covax’s initial aim is to raise $2 billion to accelerate the manufacture of a COVID-19 vaccine on a huge scale and to distribute it according to need, rather than ability to pay.

This commitment is commendable. It delivers a powerful message to governments and vaccine developers that if legally binding, solid measures are put in place, and money pledged, vaccines can be made available and affordable universally. However, many big questions remain. Have the funders agreed to equitable access? How will the vaccines be priced? Will governments commit to sharing vaccines according to fair allocation rules being developed by WHO? Can technology be transferred royalty-free to multiple manufacturers? “The question of who will get priority access to vaccines is core to the global public interest, we need to get the governance of these decisions right, otherwise there will be tremendous resentment and unnecessary deaths, not to mention decreased capacity to get this pandemic under control”, Suerie Moon, co-director of the Global Health Centre at The Graduate Institute (Geneva, Switzerland), told The Lancet. Transparency in such decisions is fundamental.

There is a urgent need for new arrangements at the global level to facilitate the development, finance, production, and equitable distribution of COVID-19 vaccines. Controlling the pandemic demands global cooperation. The nationalist and competitive approaches taken by a few high-income countries to get hold of a small supply of vaccines could result in excessive casualties in other parts of the world. Global solidarity is needed instead, and resources must be pooled and shared. Gavi Covax is a step in the right direction.

It is imperative that more governments and pharmaceutical companies agree to shoulder the costs of vaccine research and manufacturing, and to share data and technologies. They need to commit to WHO allocation guidelines and cooperate globally to distribute vaccines fairly to those at greatest risk. A pandemic vaccine needs strong global governance behind it.

International regulators stress value of safe and effective vaccines

Featured Journal Content

 

International regulators stress value of safe and effective vaccines
EMA Press release
18/06/2020
EMA has endorsed two statements about the importance, safety and effectiveness of vaccines published today by the International Coalition of Medicines Regulatory Authorities (ICMRA). International regulators from around the world have come together and jointly developed these statements for healthcare professionals and the general public to give assurance that the regulatory processes for the authorisation and safety monitoring of vaccines are robust, independent and focus firmly on public health.

‘The COVID-19 health emergency reminds us how important vaccines are to protect ourselves and our loved ones against infectious diseases,’ said Guido Rasi, Chair of ICMRA and EMA’s Executive Director. ‘In fact, vaccines are that one medical intervention that benefits not only those who receive it directly but also those who are too young, too old or too ill to be vaccinated themselves.’

The two ICMRA statements aim to reassure healthcare professionals and the public around the globe that medicines regulators only allow vaccines onto the market that fulfil the highest standards of safety, efficacy and quality.

In recent years, vaccination coverage has dropped to sometimes dangerously low levels in some countries, which increases the risk of the disease spreading and affecting the unvaccinated. The ICMRA statements reiterate that it is everyone’s responsibility to get vaccinated in order to protect not only themselves but also their friends, communities, vulnerable populations who cannot get immunised as well as the generations to come.

ICMRA is an international coalition of 29 medicines regulatory authorities from every region in the world, with WHO as an observer, which works to address global regulatory challenges. Medicines regulators recognise their important role in facilitating access to safe and effective high-quality medicines that are essential to human health and well-being. This includes ensuring that the benefits of vaccines outweigh their risks.

The development of the joint statements followed a series of discussions among ICMRA members on new ways to collaborate and enhance confidence in vaccine safety and effectiveness…

Date: June 18, 2020 Type: Press Release

Coronavirus [COVID-19]

EMERGENCIES

Coronavirus [COVID-19]
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

The Guardian, Sat 20 Jun 2020 08.42 EDT Last modified on Sat 20 Jun 2020 16.18
Coronavirus outbreak
‘The pandemic is accelerating’: WHO warns of dangerous coronavirus phase – video
The World Health Organization has announced the coronavirus pandemic is accelerating and more than 150,000 cases of Covid-19 were reported in one day on Thursday, the highest single-day number so far.
Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the WHO director general, told reporters in Geneva refugees were particularly at risk from the pandemic and that nearly half of the newly reported cases were in the Americas, with significant numbers from South Asia and the Middle East.
[Video: 02:03]

::::::

WHO – Situation report – 152
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)  20 June 2020
Confirmed cases :: 8 525 042
Confirmed deaths :: 456 973
Countries, areas or territories with cases :: 216

Highlights
WHO Director-General Dr Tedros, in his regular media briefing yesterday, highlighted that today is World Refugee Day and highlighted the risks of COVID-19 for some of the world’s most vulnerable people. He also stressed the shared duty to do everything we can to prevent, detect and respond to transmission of COVID-19 among refugee populations.

WHO has published ‘Criteria for releasing COVID-19 patients from isolation’ which provides an update to previous guidance. The updated criteria reflect recent findings that patients whose symptoms have resolved may still test positive for the COVID-19 virus for many weeks. Despite this positive test result, these patients are not likely to be infectious and therefore are unlikely to be able to transmit the virus to another person.

WHO has published an Emergency Global Supply Chain System (COVID-19) catalogue. This catalogue lists all medical devices, including personal protective equipment, medical equipment, medical consumables, single use devices, laboratory and test-related devices that may be requested through the COVID-19 Supply Portal.

::::::
::::::

Ebola – DRC+

Emergencies

Ebola – DRC+
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

Ebola Outbreak in DRC 97: 16 June 2020
[Excerpts]
Situation Update WHO Health Emergencies Programme Page 2
In Ituri, North Kivu and South Kivu provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, no new confirmed cases of EVD have been reported since 27 April 2020.
From 8 to 14 June 2020, an average of 2975 alerts were reported and investigated each day. Of these, an average of 274 alerts were validated as suspected cases each day, requiring specialized care and laboratory testing to rule out EVD. In the past week, there have been a stable number of daily alerts reported throughout active sub-coordinations. Timely testing of suspected cases continues to be provided from eight laboratories. From 8 to 14 June 2020, 3219 samples were tested, including 2513 blood samples from alive, suspected cases; 324 swabs from community deaths; and 382 from re-tested patients. None of them tested positive. The number of samples tested by the laboratories increased by 3% compared to the previous week…

Conclusions
Investigations into the origin of the last cluster of cases in Beni Health Zone are ongoing in
collaboration with the Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale. There are challenges in EVD
response activites due to limited resources given the other local and global emergencies. Maintaining a robust surveillance system in order to detect, isolate, test and treat new suspected cases as early as possible remains crucial. Continued coordination, communication among partners, authorities and communities along with EVD survivor advocacy are also essential.

::::::
::::::

POLIO – WHO-OCHA Emergencies

Emergencies

POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)

Polio this week as of 16 June 2020
Summary of new viruses this week (AFP cases and ES positives):
:: Afghanistan: four WPV1 cases, two WPV1 and three cVDPV2 positive environmental samples
:: Pakistan: one WPV1 case, 18 WPV1 positive environmental samples and two cVDPV2 cases
:: Côte d’Ivoire: three cVDPV2 cases and two cVDPV2 positive environmental samples
:: Somalia: four cVDPV2 positive environmental samples

::::::
::::::

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies [to 20 June 2020]

Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Ebola Outbreak in DRC 97: 16 June 2020
[See Ebola above for detail]

Syrian Arab Republic
WHO airlifts over 80 tons of emergency medical supplies from Iraq to meet increasing health needs in northeast Syria
14 June 2020 – The World Health Organization (WHO) has dispatched more than 80 tons of urgently needed emergency medical supplies to support the health system in northeast Syria. The 3-cargo consignment was airlifted from Erbil in the Kurdistan region of Iraq to Damascus from 10 to 12 June…

Nigeria – No new digest announcements identified
Somalia – No new digest announcements identified
South Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

::::::

WHO Grade 2 Emergencies [to 20 June 2020]
Iraq
:: WHO airlifts over 80 tons of emergency medical supplies from Iraq to meet increasing health needs in northeast Syria
14 June 2020 – The World Health Organization (WHO) has dispatched more than 80 tons of urgently needed emergency medical supplies to support the health system in northeast Syria. The 3-cargo consignment was airlifted from Erbil in the Kurdistan region of Iraq to Damascus from 10 to 12 June…

Angola – No new digest announcements identified
Afghanistan – No new digest announcements identified
Burkina Faso [in French] – No new digest announcements identified
Burundi – No new digest announcements identified
Cameroon – No new digest announcements identified
Central African Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new digest announcements identified
Libya – No new digest announcements identified
Malawi – No new digest announcements identified
Measles in Europe – No new digest announcements identified
MERS-CoV – No new digest announcements identified
Myanmar – No new digest announcements identified
Niger – No new digest announcements identified
occupied Palestinian territory – No new digest announcements identified
Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Ukraine – No new digest announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new digest announcements identified

::::::

WHO Grade 1 Emergencies [to 20 June 2020]

Chad – No new digest announcements identified
Djibouti – Page not responding at inquiry
Kenya – No new digest announcements identified
Mali – No new digest announcements identified
Namibia – viral hepatitis – No new digest announcements identified
Tanzania – No new digest announcements identified

::::::
::::::

UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic
:: Syrian Arab Republic: COVID-19 Response Update No. 06 – 19 June 2020

Yemen
:: 18 June 2020 Yemen: COVID-19 Preparedness and Response Monthly Report (May 2020)

::::::

UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
CYCLONE IDAI and Kenneth – No new digest announcements identified
EBOLA OUTBREAK IN THE DRC – No new digest announcements identified

::::::
::::::

WHO & Regional Offices [to 20 June 2020]

WHO & Regional Offices [to 20 June 2020]
18 June 2020 News release
Countries failing to prevent violence against children, agencies warn
Global status report on preventing violence against children calls for more government action and warns of ‘dramatic impact’ of COVID-19

18 June 2020 News release
Luxembourg and WHO sign new Memorandum of Understanding, committing flexible funding to support WHO Triple billion targets

16 June 2020 News release
WHO welcomes preliminary results about dexamethasone use in treating critically ill COVID-19 patients
The World Health Organization (WHO) welcomes the initial clinical trial results from the United Kingdom (UK) that show dexamethasone, a corticosteroid, can be lifesaving for patients who are critically ill with COVID-19. For patients on ventilators, the treatment was shown to reduce mortality by about one third, and for patients requiring only oxygen, mortality was cut by about one fifth, according to preliminary findings shared with WHO.
The benefit was only seen in patients seriously ill with COVID-19, and was not observed in patients with milder disease…

13 June 2020 News release
A cluster of COVID-19 in Beijing, People’s Republic of China

 

::::::

Weekly Epidemiological Record, 19 June 2020, vol. 95, 25 (pp. 265–280)
Global leishmaniasis surveillance, 2017–2018, and first report on 5 additional indicators

 

::::::

WHO Regional Offices
Selected Press Releases, Announcements
WHO African Region AFRO
:: Africa’s wild polio-free status to be determined in August 9 June 2020
:: WHO concerned over COVID-19 impact on women, girls in Africa 18 June 2020
Humanitarian crises, including health emergencies affect men and women differently. As COVID-19 continues to spread in Africa, there are concerns over its impact on women and girls, with vulnerabilities feared to worsen as the pandemic overwhelms health systems.

WHO Region of the Americas PAHO
No new digest content identified.

WHO South-East Asia Region SEARO
No new digest content identified.

WHO European Region EURO
:: Tapping into WHO expertise allows Uzbekistan to increase COVID-19 testing 19-06-2020
:: Expert networks scale up COVID-19 testing, tracing and treating in Tajikistan 19-06-2020
:: Stories of hope as refugees help tackle the COVID-19 pandemic 19-06-2020
:: Refugee nurse Ahmed Ahmed: working together to prevent COVID-19 infections in Turkey 19-06-2020
:: COVID-19: Preparing for the autumn is a priority for WHO/Europe 18-06-2020

WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region EMRO
:: UN and partners launch guidelines to address the needs of most vulnerable groups during COVID-19
Cairo, 15 June 2020 – Vulnerable groups, particularly women, displaced people, migrants, older persons and people with disabilities, may experience the most harmful impacts of COVID-19. This is due to many factors including discrimination and stigma, their exclusion from effective surveillance and early-warning systems as well as their limited access to primary healthcare services. Their particular needs must be…

WHO Western Pacific Region
No new digest content identified.

CDC/ACIP [to 20 June 2020]

CDC/ACIP [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.cdc.gov/media/index.html
https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/acip/index.html
Latest News Releases
CDC releases consolidated COVID-19 testing recommendations
Saturday, June 13, 2020.

MMWR News Synopsis Friday, June 19, 2020
Progress Toward Rubella Elimination — Western Pacific Region, 2000–2019

Public Attitudes, Behaviors, and Beliefs Related to COVID-19, Stay-at-Home Orders, Nonessential Business Closures, and Public Health Guidance — United States, New York City, and Los Angeles, May 5–12, 2020 (Early release June 12, 2020)

Coronavirus Disease 2019 Case Surveillance — United States, January 22–May 30, 2020 (Early release June 15, 2020)

Africa CDC [to 20 June 2020]

Africa CDC [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.africacdc.org/
News
Outbreak Brief 22: COVID-19 Pandemic – 16 June 2020
…As of 9 am EAT 16 June 2020, a total of 251,866 COVID-19 cases and 6,769 (CFR: 2.7%) deaths have been reported in 54 African countries. This is about 3.2% of all cases reported globally. Since the last brief (9 June 2020), 55,612 new COVID-19 cases have been reported, which is a 27% increase in new cases reported compared to what was reported in the previous week (2-9 June 2020)…

China CDC

China CDC
http://www.chinacdc.cn/en/
No new digest content identified.

 

National Health Commission of the People’s Republic of China
http://en.nhc.gov.cn/
News
June 20: Daily briefing on novel coronavirus cases in China
2020-06-20
On June 19, 31 provincial-level regions on the Chinese mainland as well as the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps reported 27 new cases of confirmed infections (4 imported cases, 3 in Guangdong province and 1 in Shanghai municipality; 23 indigenous cases, 22 in Beijing municipality and 1 in Hebei province), 4 new cases of suspected infections (all are indigenous cases in Beijing), and no deaths. 12 patients were released from hospital after being cured. 232 people who had had close contact with infected patients were freed from medical observation. The number of serious cases remained unchanged…

Beijing hospital increasing beds to prepare for patients
2020-06-20
So far 183 cases have been confirmed in the capital since outbreak at market
Beijing Ditan Hospital has expanded its medical facility to 1,070 beds to prepare for COVID-19 cases, and professionals from other provinces will come to aid future investigation and analysis, the deputy head of the hospital said on June 19.
As a designated medical facility for novel coronavirus patients in Beijing, Ditan Hospital has received 183 patients, including two in critical condition and 11 with severe symptoms as of Thursday…

Chinese official urges relentless efforts to stem virus spread
2020-06-20

Beijing’s outbreak data shared with world
2020-06-20
Chinese researchers have published data collected from samples of the coronavirus that caused the latest COVID-19 outbreak in Beijing and shared it with international organizations.

Announcements

Announcements

 

Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group [to 20 June 2020]
https://alleninstitute.org/what-we-do/frontiers-group/news-press/
News
No new digest content identified.

 

BARDA [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.phe.gov/about/barda/Pages/default.aspx
June 19, 2020
BARDA and Empatica forge new partnership to develop an early monitoring platform to identify COVID-19 infection

June 16, 2020
BARDA and Immunexpress Inc. expand partnership to evaluate a sepsis host-based laboratory diagnostic to triage COVID-19 patients

 

BMGF – Gates Foundation [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases
No new digest content identified.

 

Bill & Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.gatesmri.org/
The Bill & Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute is a non-profit biotech organization. Our mission is to develop products to fight malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrheal diseases—three major causes of mortality, poverty, and inequality in developing countries. The world has unprecedented scientific tools at its disposal; now is the time to use them to save the lives of the world’s poorest people
No new digest content identified.

 

CARB-X [to 20 June 2020]
https://carb-x.org/
CARB-X is a non-profit public-private partnership dedicated to accelerating antibacterial research to tackle the global rising threat of drug-resistant bacteria.
06.17.2020
CARB-X funds Module Innovations to develop a simple test to diagnose urinary tract infections (UTI) and identify superbugs causing the infection within 2 hours
CARB-X is awarding Module Innovations of Pune, India, up to US$702,000 plus up to $2.5 million more if certain project milestones are met, to develop a rapid diagnostic for drug-resistant urinary tract infections (UTI) infections.

 

CEPI – Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations [to 20 June 2020]
http://cepi.net/
Latest News
No new digest content identified.

 

Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) [to 20 June 2020]
https://clintonhealthaccess.org/
News & Press Releases
No new digest content identified.

 

EDCTP [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.edctp.org/
The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) aims to accelerate the development of new or improved drugs, vaccines, microbicides and diagnostics against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as well as other poverty-related and neglected infectious diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on phase II and III clinical trials
Latest news
No new digest content identified.

 

Emory Vaccine Center [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.vaccines.emory.edu/
No new digest content identified.

 

European Medicines Agency [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/
News & Press Releases
Press release: International regulators stress value of safe and effective vaccines
Last updated: 18/06/2020

 

 

News: Global regulators work towards alignment on policy approaches and regulatory flexibility during COVID-19 – update #4
Last updated: 15/06/2020

 

European Vaccine Initiative [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.euvaccine.eu/
Latest News
No new digest content identified.

 

FDA [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/default.htm
Press Announcements
June 19, 2020 – Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: Daily Roundup June 19, 2020

June 18, 2020 – Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: Daily Roundup June 18, 2020

June 18, 2020 – Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Takes Additional Action to Harness Real-World Data to Inform COVID-19 Response Efforts

June 17, 2020 – Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: Daily Roundup June 17, 2020

June 17, 2020 – Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Issues Warning Letters to Companies Inappropriately Marketing Antibody Tests, Potentially Placing Public Health at Risk

June 16, 2020 – Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: Daily Roundup June 16, 2020

June 16, 2020 – Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: Facilitating Diagnostic Test Availability for Asymptomatic Testing and Sample Pooling

June 16, 2020 – Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Revokes Emergency Use Authorization for Chembio Antibody Test

June 15, 2020 – Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: Daily Roundup June 15, 2020

June 15, 2020 – Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Warns of Newly Discovered Potential Drug Interaction That May Reduce Effectiveness of a COVID-19 Treatment Authorized for Emergency Use

June 15, 2020 – Coronavirus (COVID-19) Update: FDA Revokes Emergency Use Authorization for Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine

 

Fondation Merieux [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.fondation-merieux.org/
News, Events
No new digest content identified.

 

Gavi [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.gavi.org/
News releases
16 June 2020
Pneumonia vaccine price drops dramatically for lower-income countries thanks to the Gavi Pneumococcal AMC

 

GHIT Fund [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.ghitfund.org/newsroom/press
GHIT was set up in 2012 with the aim of developing new tools to tackle infectious diseases that No new digest content identified.

 

Global Fund [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.theglobalfund.org/en/news/
Feature Story
The Fight Against HIV, TB and Malaria Continues
18 June 2020

Video
The Fight Continues Against HIV
18 June 2020

Updates
Removing Human Rights Barriers to Health: Findings and Lessons
15 June 2020

 

Hilleman Laboratories [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.hillemanlabs.org/
No new digest content identified.

 

Human Vaccines Project [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.humanvaccinesproject.org/media/press-releases/
No new digest content identified.

 

IAVI [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.iavi.org/newsroom
Press Releases
No new digest content identified.

 

 

International Coalition of Medicines Regulatory Authorities [ICMRA]
http://www.icmra.info/drupal/en/news
Selected Statements, Press Releases, Research
No new digest content identified.

 

 

International Generic and Biosimilar Medicines Association [IGBA]
https://www.igbamedicines.org/
News
No new digest content identified.

 

 

IFFIm
http://www.iffim.org/
Press Releases
World Leaders Pledge US$ 926 Million to IFFIm
15 Jun 2020
:: Italy, the Netherlands, Norway and Spain have renewed their support for IFFIm’s innovative financing mechanism
:: Commitments to IFFIm are part of US$ 8.8 billion in total pledges to Gavi
:: These new pledges will help Gavi immunise another 300 million children during the 2021-2025 period and respond to the COVID-19 crisis

 

IFRC [to 20 June 2020]
http://media.ifrc.org/ifrc/news/press-releases/
Selected Press Releases, Announcements
Middle East and North Africa
COVID-19: Red Cross and Red Crescent urge more support for displaced people in the Middle East North Africa region
Beirut, 19 June 2020 – Ahead of World Refugee Day on 20 June, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) is increasingly concerned that migrants, refugees and internally displaced people are falling through the cracks. …
19 June 2020

World Refugee Day: New research demonstrates dramatic impact of COVID-19 on vulnerable refugees
Geneva, 19 June 2020 – New research released ahead of World Refugee Day demonstrates the considerable socio-economic impact that COVID-19 has had on already vulnerable refugees. The Red Cross and Red Crescent research focused on refugees living in Turk …
19 June 2020

 

IVAC [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/ivac/index.html
Updates
No new digest content identified.

 

IVI [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.ivi.int/
Selected IVI News & Announcements
No new digest content identified.

 

JEE Alliance [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.jeealliance.org/
Selected News and Events
No new digest content identified.

 

MSF/Médecins Sans Frontières [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.msf.org/
Latest [Selected Announcements]
Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic
MSF opens 100-bed COVID-19 treatment centre in Bihar, India
Press Release 19 Jun 2020

Refugees, IDPs and people on the move
“No one chooses to be a refugee”
Voices from the Field 19 Jun 2020

Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic
Brazil’s COVID-19 nightmare is far from under control
Project Update 17 Jun 2020
 

Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic
Escaping first Libya, and then coronavirus in Germany
Voices from the Field 15 Jun 2020

Afghanistan
MSF withdraws from Dasht-e-Barchi following attack on patients and staff
Press Release 15 Jun 2020

 

National Vaccine Program Office – U.S. HHS [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.hhs.gov/vaccines/about/index.html
NVAC 2020 Meetings
September 23-24, 2020 Meeting (Virtual)

 

NIH [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases
Selected News Releases
NIH halts clinical trial of hydroxychloroquine
June 20, 2020 — Study shows treatment does no harm, but provides no benefit
A clinical trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of adults hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been stopped by the National Institutes of Health. A data and safety monitoring board (DSMB) met late Friday and determined that while there was no harm, the study drug was very unlikely to be beneficial to hospitalized patients with COVID-19. After its fourth interim analysis the DSMB, which regularly monitors the trial, recommended to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), part of NIH, to stop the study. NHLBI halted the trial immediately.
The Outcomes Related to COVID-19 treated with hydroxychloroquine among In-patients with symptomatic Disease study, or ORCHID Study, was being conducted by the Prevention and Early Treatment of Acute Lung Injury (PETAL) Clinical Trials Network of NHLBI. The data from this study indicate that this drug provided no additional benefit compared to placebo control for the treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients…

All of Us Research Program launches COVID-19 research initiatives
June 16, 2020 — NIH effort expands data collection to shed light on pandemic’s spread and impact.

NIH launches analytics platform to harness nationwide COVID-19 patient data to speed treatments
June 15, 2020 — Effort aims to transform clinical information into knowledge urgently needed to study the novel coronavirus.

 

PATH [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.path.org/media-center/
Selected Announcements
PATH congratulates Serum Institute on Advance Market Commitment award for pneumococcal vaccine supply
June 18, 2020 by PATH
New supply agreement opens the door for pneumonia and other pneumococcal disease prevention to be more affordable and accessible for the world’s most resource-strapped countries.

 

Sabin Vaccine Institute [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.sabin.org/updates/pressreleases
Statements and Press Releases
Sabin Vaccine Institute’s Boost Community Prepares Immunization Professionals to Lead During the COVID-19 Crisis
Tuesday, June 16, 2020
WASHINGTON, D.C. – Amid the evolving global challenges posed by the novel coronavirus pandemic, immunization professionals must now grapple with deploying routine immunization services in a daunting and ever-shifting landscape. In a recent survey of 800 immunization professionals conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Sabin Vaccine Institute (Sabin) and other key partners, 64 percent of respondents reported significant disruptions to immunization in their country or community, with either zero or limited outreach activities taking place and fewer visits to vaccination posts. To strengthen immunization professionals’ ability to navigate the complex challenges of their work, Sabin launched the Boost Community (Boost), a global network dedicated to serving immunization professionals, supported by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation…

 

UNAIDS [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.unaids.org/en
Selected Press Releases/Reports/Statements
19 June 2020
UNAIDS helps response to food insecurity during COVID-19 outbreak in Angola

18 June 2020
Local skills and knowledge help Senegalese community-led organizations deliver

17 June 2020
Remembering human rights activist Yves Yomb

16 June 2020
Online games fighting HIV stigma and discrimination in the Islamic Republic of Iran

15 June 2020
UNAIDS highlights six critical actions to put gender equality at the centre of COVID-19 responses

15 June 2020
New online resource for mental health services for key populations in Kazakhstan

 

UNICEF [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.unicef.org/media/press-releases
Selected Press releases/Announcements
Press release
UNICEF Cryptocurrency Fund announces its largest investment of startups in developing and emerging economies
Among the awardees are companies expanding work to use their technologies to mitigate the hardships of COVID-19 on children and youth

Press release
18/06/2020
UNICEF airlifts COVID-19 testing kits to Yemen to boost response as cases soar

Press release
17/06/2020
Countries failing to prevent violence against children, agencies warn
Global status report on preventing violence against children calls for more government action and warns of ‘dramatic impact’ of COVID-19

Press release
16/06/2020
Universal child benefits critical in reducing poverty, new ODI and UNICEF report finds
As the economic fallout of COVID-19 deepens, investment in social protection systems key to protecting families from catastrophic levels of deprivation and financial hardship

Press release
16/06/2020
Pneumonia vaccine price drops dramatically for lower-income countries thanks to the Gavi pneumococcal Advance Market Commitment
New supply agreement between UNICEF and Serum Institute of India (SII) makes pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) available at US$2.00 per dose, a 43 per cent reduction from the Gavi price at the start of the Advance Market Commitment

 

Unitaid [to 20 June 2020]
https://unitaid.org/
Featured News
19 June 2020
Unitaid commits further $35 million for COVID-19 response
Geneva – New funding of up to US$ 35 million has been approved by Unitaid’s Executive Board to support the organisation’s role in the ‘test, treat and prevent’ response to COVID-19.
This key decision was taken at the Board’s meeting of 17-18 June 2020, and recognising Unitaid’s role in the ‘Access to COVID-19 Tools’ (ACT) Accelerator partnership for development and availability of vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics for COVID-19. This comes on top of US$ 30 million already agreed in March 2020 as part of the COVID-19 response.
This decision comes in the context of the additional funding needs for the ACT-Accelerator work. Unitaid has identified a total of US$265 million for its proposed work in the therapeutics, diagnostics and access areas.
The Board’s action on a second tranche of funding will allow Unitaid to move fast to support needs identified by the ACT-Accelerator, in key areas like research and development of promising therapies, development and scale-up of rapid diagnostic tests adapted for low- and middle-income countries, as well as ensuring affordability and supporting health systems…

 

Vaccination Acceptance Research Network (VARN) [to 20 June 2020]
https://vaccineacceptance.org/news.html#header1-2r
Announcements
No new digest content identified.

 

Vaccine Confidence Project [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.vaccineconfidence.org/
Latest News & Archive
[Undated]
Launching a new global initiative: Public sentiments and emotions around COVID-19 – What is the world feeling and how is it different across time and place?
The Vaccine Confidence Project is conducting a global study to track public sentiment and emotions around current and potential measures to contain and treat COVID-19. Through a mix of population surveys and social media monitoring and analysis over time and place, this year-long global study will investigate perception and sentiment of COVID-19 social distancing measures and potential medical tools globally…

 

Vaccine Education Center – Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.chop.edu/centers-programs/vaccine-education-center
No new digest content identified.

 

Wellcome Trust [to 20 June 2020]
https://wellcome.ac.uk/news
Explainer | 15 June 2020
We need COVID-19 treatments as well as vaccines – and they have to work for everyone
Effective treatments, that are accessible to everyone who needs them, have to be part of the solution to the coronavirus pandemic – here’s why.

 

The Wistar Institute [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.wistar.org/news/press-releases
No new digest content identified.

 

WFPHA: World Federation of Public Health Associations [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.wfpha.org/
Latest News
WFPHA Statement on Racism
Wednesday, 17 June 2020
Since its inception in 1967, social justice, equity and human rights have been the enduring values of the World Federation of Public Health…

 

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.oie.int/en/for-the-media/press-releases/2020/
Press Releases
19/06/20
Maintaining efforts to fight animal diseases in times of COVID-19
As the world faces the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, the OIE calls countries to continue to implement prevention and control measures for animal diseases. Sustaining veterinary activities is essential to avoid the detrimental impacts of animal diseases, which could exacerbate the current sanitary and socio-economic crises. The main conclusions of the OIE report on the global animal health situation are presented
Report on the current animal health situation worldwide: analysis of events and trends

18/06/20
Overview of the activities of the OIE Specialist Commissions

16/06/20
New official disease status and control programmes recognised by the OIE

 

 

::::::

 

ARM [Alliance for Regenerative Medicine] [to 20 June 2020]
https://alliancerm.org/press-releases/
Press Releases
No new digest content identified.

 

BIO [to 20 June 2020]
https://www.bio.org/press-releases
Press Releases
BIO’s Dr. McMurry-Heath Calls Congressional Hearing “Important Step” to Addressing Covid-19 Health Disparities
June 17, 2020
BIO President and CEO Dr. Michelle McMurry-Heath issued the following statement in advance of a congressional subcommittee hearing in the House Committee on Energy and Commerce on racial and ethnic disparities in Covid-19…

BIO Elects New Board Directors and Section Governing Board Chairs
June 16, 2020
The Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO) is pleased to announce the election of its new Executive Committee members for the 2020-2021 term. Additionally, eight new board directors and four new section governing board chairs and vice chairs…

 

DCVMN – Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturers Network [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.dcvmn.org/
News
No new digest content identified.

 

IFPMA [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.ifpma.org/resources/news-releases/
Selected Press Releases, Statements, Publications
No new digest content identified.

 

ICBA – International Council of Biotechnology Associations [to 20 June 2020]
https://internationalbiotech.org/
News
No new digest content identified.

 

PhRMA [to 20 June 2020]
http://www.phrma.org/
Selected Press Releases, Statements
No new digest content identified.

Journal Watch

Journal Watch
Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review continues its weekly scanning of key peer-reviewed journals to identify and cite articles, commentary and editorials, books reviews and other content supporting our focu-s on vaccine ethics and policy. Journal Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues the Center is actively tracking. We selectively provide full text of some editorial and comment articles that are specifically relevant to our work. Successful access to some of the links provided may require subscription or other access arrangement unique to the publisher.
If you would like to suggest other journal titles to include in this service, please contact David Curry at: david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org

A Rush to Judgment? Rapid Reporting and Dissemination of Results and Its Consequences Regarding the Use of Hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19

Annals of Internal Medicine
16 June 2020 Volume 172, Issue 12
http://annals.org/aim/issue

 

Ideas and Opinions
A Rush to Judgment? Rapid Reporting and Dissemination of Results and Its Consequences Regarding the Use of Hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19
FREE
Alfred H.J. Kim, MD, PhD, Jeffrey A. Sparks, MD, MMSc, Jean W. Liew, MD, Michael S. Putman, MD, … et al.
Hydroxychloroquine, an essential treatment for many patients with rheumatologic conditions, has garnered widespread attention as a potential treatment for COVID-19 infection. The authors appraise the study generating this interest and highlight the potential consequences of rapid dissemination of overinterpreted data.

Special issue on autonomous agents modelling other agents: Guest editorial

Artificial Intelligence – An International Journal
Volume 285 August 2020
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/artificial-intelligence/vol/285/suppl/C

 

Editorial Abstract only
Special issue on autonomous agents modelling other agents: Guest editorial Stefano V. Albrecht, Peter Stone, Michael P. Wellman
Article 103292
Abstract
Much research in artificial intelligence is concerned with enabling autonomous agents to reason about various aspects of other agents (such as their beliefs, goals, plans, or decisions) and to utilise such reasoning for effective interaction. This special issue contains new technical contributions addressing open problems in autonomous agents modelling other agents, as well as research perspectives about current developments, challenges, and future directions.

Epidemiology, vaccine effectiveness, and risk factors for mortality for pneumococcal disease among hospitalised adults in Singapore: a case-control study

BMC Infectious Diseases
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content
(Accessed 20 June 2020)

 

Epidemiology, vaccine effectiveness, and risk factors for mortality for pneumococcal disease among hospitalised adults in Singapore: a case-control study
Streptococcus pneumoniae infections can lead to severe morbidity and mortality, especially in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). This study evaluated factors associated with pneumococcal disease, …
Authors: Tyson Chan, Min Zhi Tay, Win Mar Kyaw, Angela Chow and Hanley J. Ho
Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2020 20:423
Content type: Research article
Published on: 17 June 2020

Trends in measles cases in Bayelsa state, Nigeria: a five-year review of case-based surveillance data (2014–2018)

BMC Infectious Diseases

(Accessed 20 June 2020)

Trends in measles cases in Bayelsa state, Nigeria: a five-year review of case-based surveillance data (2014–2018)
Measles is a vaccine preventable, highly transmissible viral infection that affects mostly children under five years. It has been ear marked for elimination and Nigeria adopted the measles elimination strategi…

Authors: Neni Aworabhi-Oki, T. Numbere, M. S. Balogun, A. Usman, R. Utulu, N. Ebere, W. Omubo, J. Stow, S. Abba and A. Olorukooba
Citation: BMC Public Health 2020 20:938
Content type: Research article
Published on: 15 June 2020

What Do We (Not) Know About Global Views of Human Gene Editing? Insights and Blind Spots in the CRISPR Era

The CRISPR Journal
Volume 3, Issue 3 / June 2020
https://www.liebertpub.com/toc/crispr/3/3

 

Perspective Free
What Do We (Not) Know About Global Views of Human Gene Editing? Insights and Blind Spots in the CRISPR Era
Emily L. Howell, Shiyu Yang, Becca Beets, Dominique Brossard, Dietram A. Scheufele, and
Michael A. Xenos
Pages:148–155
Published Online:17 June 2020
Abstract
As research on human applications of CRISPR advances, researchers, advisory bodies, and other stakeholder organizations continue calling for global public discourses and engagement to shape the development of human gene editing (HGE). Research that captures public views and tests ways for engaging across viewpoints is vital for facilitating these discourses. Unfortunately, such research lags behind advances in HGE research and applications. Here, we provide the first review of nationally representative public-opinion surveys focused on HGE to discuss limitations and remaining gaps, illustrating how these gaps hinder interpretation of existing studies. Rigorous research with proper methods for capturing representative public opinion of HGE is limited, especially in countries outside of the United States and on a global scale. The result is severely restricted understanding of even the surface level of public views concerning HGE. We identify broad areas where we need more and better research capturing public views, and describe how future surveys can help collect insights necessary for discourse and decision making on HGE.

What Do We (Not) Know About Global Views of Human Gene Editing? Insights and Blind Spots in the CRISPR Era

The CRISPR Journal
Volume 3, Issue 3 / June 2020
https://www.liebertpub.com/toc/crispr/3/3

 

Perspective Free
What Do We (Not) Know About Global Views of Human Gene Editing? Insights and Blind Spots in the CRISPR Era
Emily L. Howell, Shiyu Yang, Becca Beets, Dominique Brossard, Dietram A. Scheufele, and
Michael A. Xenos
Pages:148–155
Published Online:17 June 2020
Abstract
As research on human applications of CRISPR advances, researchers, advisory bodies, and other stakeholder organizations continue calling for global public discourses and engagement to shape the development of human gene editing (HGE). Research that captures public views and tests ways for engaging across viewpoints is vital for facilitating these discourses. Unfortunately, such research lags behind advances in HGE research and applications. Here, we provide the first review of nationally representative public-opinion surveys focused on HGE to discuss limitations and remaining gaps, illustrating how these gaps hinder interpretation of existing studies. Rigorous research with proper methods for capturing representative public opinion of HGE is limited, especially in countries outside of the United States and on a global scale. The result is severely restricted understanding of even the surface level of public views concerning HGE. We identify broad areas where we need more and better research capturing public views, and describe how future surveys can help collect insights necessary for discourse and decision making on HGE.

COVID-19: Identifying countries with indicators of success in responding to the outbreak [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]

Gates Open Research
https://gatesopenresearch.org/browse/articles
[Accessed 20 June 2020]

 

Research Article metrics AWAITING PEER REVIEW
COVID-19: Identifying countries with indicators of success in responding to the outbreak [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]
David S. Kennedy, VK Vu, Hannah Ritchie, Rebecca Bartlein, Oliver Rothschild, Daniel G. Bausch, Max Roser, Anna C. Seale
Peer Reviewers Invited
PUBLISHED 18 Jun 2020

Protecting health during COVID-19 and beyond: A global examination of paid sick leave design in 193 countries*

Global Public Health
Volume 15, 2020 Issue 7
http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rgph20/current

 

Article
Protecting health during COVID-19 and beyond: A global examination of paid sick leave design in 193 countries*
Jody Heymann , Amy Raub , Willetta Waisath , Michael McCormack , Ross Weistroffer , Gonzalo Moreno , Elizabeth Wong & Alison Earle
Pages: 925-934
Published online: 12 May 2020

COVID-19 reveals weak health systems by design: Why we must re-make global health in this historic moment

Global Public Health
Volume 15, 2020 Issue 7
http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rgph20/current

 

Article Commentary
COVID-19 reveals weak health systems by design: Why we must re-make global health in this historic moment
Sriram Shamasunder , Seth M. Holmes , Tinashe Goronga , Hector Carrasco , Elyse Katz , Raphael Frankfurter & Salmaan Keshavjee
Pages: 1083-1089
Published online: 30 Apr 2020

The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Biotech Industry

Human Gene Therapy
Volume 31, Issue 11-12 / June 2020
https://www.liebertpub.com/toc/hum/31/11-12

 

Commentary Free
The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Biotech Industry
Philip Reilly
Pages:608–609
Published Online:18 May 2020
… In 2021, the biotech sector will have a valuation at or above the valuation it had in late 2019. Preclinical work will be robust. Clinical trials will be near the volume of a year earlier. The regulatory review of clinical trials will be more efficient. New biotech companies will raise needed capital, and the number of new IPOs will not be much different than in 2019. There will be an uptick in M&A activity as large pharmaceutical companies acquire smaller companies (for example, the decision announced by Alexion on May 5 that it would acquire Portola at a valuation much below that company’s value in mid-2019). Most important, the contributions of talented scientists both inside academe and in the industry will continue to initiate discovery programs, many of which will lead to new drugs in our endless battle against disease.

Mozambique’s response to cyclone Idai: how collaboration and surveillance with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions were used to control a cholera epidemic

Infectious Diseases of Poverty
http://www.idpjournal.com/content
[Accessed 20 June 2020]

 

Mozambique’s response to cyclone Idai: how collaboration and surveillance with water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions were used to control a cholera epidemic
Cyclone Idai, which hit Mozambique in March 2019, was one of the worst climate-related natural disasters on record in the Southern Hemisphere causing massive destruction of housing and disruption to vital infr…
Authors: Joaquim Domingos Lequechane, Arlete Mahumane, Falume Chale, Crescêncio Nhabomba, Cristolde Salomão, Clemente Lameira, Sérgio Chicumbe and Cynthia Semá Baltazar
Citation: Infectious Diseases of Poverty 2020 9:68
Content type: Letter to the Editor
Published on: 16 June 2020

Patients’ rights and professional conduct issues in hospitals’ codes of ethics

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare
Volume 13 Issue 3 2020
https://www.emerald.com/insight/publication/issn/2056-4902/vol/13/iss/2

 

Table of Contents
Patients’ rights and professional conduct issues in hospitals’ codes of ethics
Ebru Saygili, Yucel Ozturkoglu
The purpose of this study is to explore the presence of ethical standards in the content of international hospitals codes of ethics disclosed in their websites.

Patients’ rights and professional conduct issues in hospitals’ codes of ethics

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare
Volume 13 Issue 3 2020
https://www.emerald.com/insight/publication/issn/2056-4902/vol/13/iss/2

 

Table of Contents
Patients’ rights and professional conduct issues in hospitals’ codes of ethics
Ebru Saygili, Yucel Ozturkoglu
The purpose of this study is to explore the presence of ethical standards in the content of international hospitals codes of ethics disclosed in their websites.

Can cholera ‘hotspots’ be converted to cholera ‘coldspots’ in cholera endemic countries? The Matlab, Bangladesh experience

International Journal of Infectious Diseases
June 2020 Volume 95, p1-480
https://www.ijidonline.com/issue/S1201-9712(20)X0007-5

 

Perspective
Can cholera ‘hotspots’ be converted to cholera ‘coldspots’ in cholera endemic countries? The Matlab, Bangladesh experience
K. Zaman, Deok Ryun Kim, Mohammad Ali, Faisal Ahmmed, Justin Im, Md Taufiqul Islam, Ashraful Islam Khan, Md Yunus, Md Alfazal Khan, Florian Marks, Firdausi Qadri, Jerome Kim, John D. Clemens
p28–31
Published online: February 29, 2020

Emergency Use Authorization of Remdesivir- The Need for a Transparent Distribution Process

JAMA
June 9, 2020, Vol 323, No. 22, Pages 2231-2350
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/currentissue

 

Viewpoint
Emergency Use Authorization of Remdesivir- The Need for a Transparent Distribution Process
Michael G. Ison, MD, MS; Cameron Wolfe, MBBS, MPH; Helen W. Boucher, MD
JAMA. 2020;323(23):2365-2366. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8863
This Viewpoint reviews the FDA’s May 2020 Emergency Use Authorization of the antiviral drug remdesivir for treatment of COVID-19 and discusses the need for a transparent distribution plan of a drug not otherwise available in the US and for which demand will likely exceed supply.

An Ethical Framework for Allocating Scarce Inpatient Medications for COVID-19 in the US

JAMA
June 9, 2020, Vol 323, No. 22, Pages 2231-2350
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/currentissue

 

An Ethical Framework for Allocating Scarce Inpatient Medications for COVID-19 in the US
Colette DeJong, MD; Alice Hm Chen, MD, MPH; Bernard Lo, MD
free access has active quiz
JAMA. 2020;323(23):2367-2368. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8914
This Viewpoint proposes ethical principles to guide allocation of scarce inpatient therapies for hospitalized COVID-19 patients to maximize patient benefit, mitigate disparities, and minimize clinician burden.

Using Controlled Trials to Resolve Key Unknowns About Policy During the COVID-19 Pandemic

JAMA
June 9, 2020, Vol 323, No. 22, Pages 2231-2350
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/currentissue

 

Using Controlled Trials to Resolve Key Unknowns About Policy During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Paul Starr, PhD
free access has multimedia has audio
JAMA. 2020;323(23):2369-2370. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.8573
This Viewpoint proposes implementing comparison groups for policy decisions, for example assessing disease transmission with alternative housing vs in-home isolation of individuals who test positive for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), or with different durations or cycles of school openings, to gather data that could make broader and future policy implementations more informed and effective.
Audio Interview: Coronavirus Q&A: Managing the Pandemic