Early smallpox vaccine manufacturing in the United States: Introduction of the “animal vaccine” in 1870, establishment of “vaccine farms”, and the beginnings of the vaccine industry

Vaccine
Volume 38, Issue 30 Pages 4651-4782 (19 June 2020)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/38/issue/30

 

History of Vaccinology paper
Research article Open access
Early smallpox vaccine manufacturing in the United States: Introduction of the “animal vaccine” in 1870, establishment of “vaccine farms”, and the beginnings of the vaccine industry
José Esparza, Seth Lederman, Andreas Nitsche, Clarissa R. Damaso
Pages 4773-4779