PNAS – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Noninvasive wearable electroactive pharmaceutical monitoring for personalized therapeutics
Shuyu Lin, Wenzhuo Yu, Bo Wang, Yichao Zhao, Ke En, Jialun Zhu, Xuanbing Cheng, Crystal Zhou, Haisong Lin, Zhaoqing Wang, Hannaneh Hojaiji, Christopher Yeung, Carlos Milla, Ronald W. Davis, and Sam Emaminejad
PNAS first published July 27, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2009979117
To achieve the mission of personalized medicine, centering on delivering the right drug to the right patient at the right dose, therapeutic drug monitoring solutions are necessary. By devising a surface engineering strategy, we created a voltammetric sensing interface, featuring an “undistorted potential window,” within which the target electroactive drug’s voltammetric response is dominant and interference is eliminated, rendering reliable target quantification in noninvasively retrievable biofluids (sweat and saliva). Leveraging this sensing interface, a fully integrated, wearable solution was constructed to seamlessly render drug readouts with minute-level temporal resolution. To inform its clinical utility, the solution was utilized to demonstrate noninvasive pharmacokinetic monitoring of a pharmaceutical (here, acetaminophen, a widely used analgesic and antipyretic) in a wearable format.