Cholera, the Current Status of Cholera Vaccines and Recommendations for Travellers

Vaccines — Open Access Journal
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines
(Accessed 17 Oct 2020)

 

Open Access Review
Cholera, the Current Status of Cholera Vaccines and Recommendations for Travellers
by Giovanni Gabutti, Andrea Rossanese, Alberto Tomasi, Sandro Giuffrida, Vincenzo Nicosia, Juan Barriga, Caterina Florescu, Federica Sandri and Armando Stefanati
Vaccines 2020, 8(4), 606; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8040606 – 14 Oct 2020
Abstract
Cholera is endemic in approximately 50 countries, primarily in Africa and South and Southeast Asia, and in these areas, it remains a disease associated with poverty. In developed nations, cholera is rare, and cases are typically imported from endemic areas by returning travellers. Cholera is readily preventable with the tools available to modern medicine. In developing nations, cholera transmission can be prevented through improved water, sanitation, and hygiene services and the use of oral cholera vaccines (OCVs). For travellers, risk can be mitigated by practicing regular hand hygiene and consuming food and water from safe sources. OCVs should be considered for high-risk travellers likely to be exposed to cholera patients or contaminated water and food. There are currently three World Health Organization pre-qualified OCVs, which are based on killed whole-cell strains of Vibrio cholerae. These established vaccines offer significant protection in adults and children for up to 2 years. A novel live attenuated vaccine that provides rapid-onset protection in adults and children is licensed in the USA and Europe only. Live attenuated OCVs may mimic the natural infection of V. cholerae more closely, generating rapid immune responses without the need for repeat dosing. These potential benefits have prompted the ongoing development of several additional live attenuated vaccines. The objective of this article is to provide a general review of the current landscape of OCVs, including a discussion of their appropriate use in international travellers.