Journal Watch

Journal Watch

   Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review continues its weekly scanning of key peer-reviewed journals to identify and cite articles, commentary and editorials, books reviews and other content supporting our focus on vaccine ethics and policy. Journal Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues the Center is actively tracking. We selectively provide full text of some editorial and comment articles that are specifically relevant to our work. Successful access to some of the links provided may require subscription or other access arrangement unique to the publisher.

If you would like to suggest other journal titles to include in this service, please contact David Curry at: david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org

 

Proposed U.S. Funding Cuts Threaten Progress on Antimicrobial Resistance

Annals of Internal Medicine
21 November 2017 Vol: 167, Issue 10
http://annals.org/aim/issue

Ideas and Opinions
Proposed U.S. Funding Cuts Threaten Progress on Antimicrobial Resistance
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an escalating public health crisis that kills patients, threatens national security, and reduces the safety of medical procedures essential to save and enhance lives. Many types of complex medical care can be complicated by serious infections and rely on the availability of safe, effective antimicrobial drugs. In the past 2 years, national and global leaders have united against this threat, making tangible progress. However, budget cuts of a historic magnitude proposed by the Trump administration now threaten to undo this progress, placing patients in grave danger.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that at least 2 million persons in the United States acquire antibiotic-resistant infections each year, resulting in at least 23 000 deaths. Antibiotic resistance is estimated to cost our health system more than $20 billion annually (1). Approximately 700 000 deaths are attributable to AMR each year globally. By 2050, a total of 350 million cumulative deaths will likely be attributable to AMR if current trends continue (2), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis will account for most of these deaths (3).

Unraveling the Epidemiology of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection

Annals of Internal Medicine
21 November 2017 Vol: 167, Issue 10
http://annals.org/aim/issue

Editorials
Unraveling the Epidemiology of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection
The burden of oral cancer in the United States has been evolving for at least 2 decades. Gains in head and neck cancer control afforded by a period effect of reduced tobacco exposure have been displaced by competing cohort effects of increasing sexual exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and subsequent increases in HPV-associated head and neck cancer, particularly oropharyngeal cancer (1). The male predominance of oropharyngeal cancer in the United States is paralleled by a much higher prevalence of oral HPV infection and a stronger relationship between number of sexual partners and oral HPV prevalence in men than women (2). The reason the risk for oral HPV infection differs between men and women remains unclear, particularly because the prevalence of genital HPV infection is similar in both sexes.
Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection: Differences in Prevalence Between Sexes and Concordance With Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection, NHANES 2011 to 2014

Applying systems biology to biomedical research and health care: a précising definition of systems medicine

BMC Health Services Research
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmchealthservres/content
(Accessed 25 November 2017)

Research article
Applying systems biology to biomedical research and health care: a précising definition of systems medicine
Systems medicine has become a key word in biomedical research. Although it is often referred to as P4-(predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory)-medicine, it still lacks a clear definition and is…
Authors: Sebastian Schleidgen, Sandra Fernau, Henrike Fleischer, Christoph Schickhardt, Ann-Kristin Oßa and Eva C. Winkler
Citation: BMC Health Services Research 2017 17:761
Published on: 21 November 2017

Efficacy and safety of pertussis vaccination for pregnant women – a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcpregnancychildbirth/content
(Accessed 25 November 2017)

Research article
Efficacy and safety of pertussis vaccination for pregnant women – a systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies
Authors: Marie Furuta, Jacqueline Sin, Edmond S. W. Ng and Kay Wang
Citation: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2017 17:390
Published on: 22 November 2017
Abstract
Background
Worldwide, pertussis remains a major health problem among children. During the recent outbreaks of pertussis, maternal antenatal immunisation was introduced in several industrial countries. This systematic review aimed to synthesize evidence for the efficacy and safety of the pertussis vaccination that was given to pregnant women to protect infants from pertussis infection.
Methods
We searched literature in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, and OpenGrey between inception of the various databases and 16 May 2016. The search terms included ‘pertussis’, ‘whooping cough’, ‘pertussis vaccine,’ ‘tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccines’ and ‘pregnancy’ and ‘perinatal’.
Results
We included 15 articles in this review, which represented 12 study populations, involving a total of 203,835 mother-infant pairs from the US, the UK, Belgium, Israel, and Vietnam. Of the included studies, there were two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and the rest were observational studies. Existing evidence suggests that vaccinations administered during 19–37 weeks of gestation are associated with significantly increased antibody levels in the blood of both mothers and their newborns at birth compared to placebo or no vaccination. However, there is a lack of robust evidence to suggest whether these increased antibodies can also reduce the incidence of pertussis (one RCT, n=48, no incidence in either group) and pertussis-related severe complications (one observational study) or mortality (no study) in infants. Meanwhile, there is no evidence of increased risk of serious complications such as stillbirth (e.g. one RCT, n=103, RR=0, meaning no case in the vaccine group), or preterm birth (two RCTs, n=151, RR=0.86, 95%CI: 0.14–5.21) related to administration of the vaccine during pregnancy.
Conclusion
Given that pertussis infection is increasing in many countries and that newborn babies are at greatest risk of developing severe complications from pertussis, maternal vaccination in the later stages of pregnancy should continue to be supported while further research should fill knowledge gaps and strengthen evidence of its efficacy and safety.

BMC Public Health (Accessed 25 November 2017)

BMC Public Health
http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles
(Accessed 25 November 2017)

Research article
Estimating disease burden of a potential A(H7N9) pandemic influenza outbreak in the United States
Since spring 2013, periodic emergence of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China has heightened the concern for a possible pandemic outbreak among humans, though it is believed that the virus is not yet human-t…
Authors: Walter Silva, Tapas K. Das and Ricardo Izurieta
Citation: BMC Public Health 2017 17:898
Published on: 25 November 2017

Research article
Assessing the impact of the Lebanese National Polio Immunization Campaign using a population-based computational model
After the re-introduction of poliovirus to Syria in 2013, Lebanon was considered at high transmission risk due to its proximity to Syria and the high number of Syrian refugees. However, after a large-scale nat…
Authors: Ali Alawieh, Zahraa Sabra, E. Farris Langley, Abdul Rahman Bizri, Randa Hamadeh and Fadi A. Zaraket
Citation: BMC Public Health 2017 17:902
Published on: 25 November 2017

Clinical Therapeutics November 2017 Volume 39, Issue 11, p2117-2330

Clinical Therapeutics
November 2017 Volume 39, Issue 11, p2117-2330
http://www.clinicaltherapeutics.com/current
TECHNOLOGY IN RESEARCH UPDATE: Social Media and Drug Development

Oncology Update: Gastrointestinal Tract Malignancies
#PatientVoiceMatters: How Social Media Is Bringing Patients and Biopharmaceutical Companies Together to Improve Drug Development
Stella Stergiopoulos
p2170–2172
Published online: October 31, 2017

Original Research
Mapping the Landscape of Patient-centric Activities Within Clinical Research
Mary Jo Lamberti, Josephine Awatin
p2196–2202
Published online: October 9, 2017

Original Research
Mapping the Landscape of Patient-centric Activities Within Clinical Research
Mary Jo Lamberti, Josephine Awatin
p2196–2202
Published online: October 9, 2017