HIV Prevention Efforts and Incidence of HIV in Uganda

New England Journal of Medicine
November 30, 2017  Vol. 377 No. 22

Original Article
HIV Prevention Efforts and Incidence of HIV in Uganda
Kate Grabowski, Ph.D., David M. Serwadda, M.B., Ch.B., M.P.H., Ronald H. Gray, M.D., Gertrude Nakigozi, M.B., Ch.B., Ph.D., Godfrey Kigozi, M.B., Ch.B., Ph.D., Joseph Kagaayi, M.B., Ch.B., Ph.D., Robert Ssekubugu, M.S.P.H., Fred Nalugoda, Ph.D., Justin Lessler, Ph.D., M.H.S., Thomas Lutalo, Ph.D., Ronald M. Galiwango, M.B., Ch.B., Sc.M., Fred Makumbi, Ph.D., Xiangrong Kong, Ph.D., Donna Kabatesi, M.D., M.P.H., Stella T. Alamo, M.D., M.P.H., Steven Wiersma, M.D., M.P.H., Nelson K. Sewankambo, M.B., Ch.B., Aaron A.R. Tobian, M.D., Ph.D., Oliver Laeyendecker, Ph.D., Thomas C. Quinn, M.D., Steven J. Reynolds, M.D., M.P.H., Maria J. Wawer, M.D., and Larry W. Chang, M.D., M.P.H., for the Rakai Health Sciences Program*

N Engl J Med 2017; 377:2154-2166 November 30, 2017 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1702150
To assess the effect of a combination strategy for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the incidence of HIV infection, we analyzed the association between the incidence of HIV and the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and medical male circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. Changes in population-level viral-load suppression and sexual behaviors were also examined.