HIV/AIDS National Strategic Plans of Sub-Saharan African countries: an analysis for gender equality and sex-disaggregated HIV targets

Health Policy and Planning
Volume 32, Issue 10, 1 December 2017
http://heapol.oxfordjournals.org/content/current

Editor’s Choice
HIV/AIDS National Strategic Plans of Sub-Saharan African countries: an analysis for gender equality and sex-disaggregated HIV targets
Jennifer Sherwood; Alana Sharp; Bergen Cooper; Beirne Roose-Snyder; Susan Blumenthal
Health Policy and Planning, Volume 32, Issue 10, 1 December 2017, Pages 1361–1367, https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czx101
Abstract
National Strategic Plans (NSPs) for HIV/AIDS are country planning documents that set priorities for programmes and services, including a set of targets to quantify progress toward national and international goals. The inclusion of sex-disaggregated targets and targets to combat gender inequality is important given the high disease burden among young women and adolescent girls in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet no comprehensive gender-focused analysis of NSP targets has been performed. This analysis quantitatively evaluates national HIV targets, included in NSPs from eighteen Sub-Saharan African countries, for sex-disaggregation. Additionally, NSP targets aimed at reducing gender-based inequality in health outcomes are compiled and inductively coded to report common themes. On average, in the eighteen countries included in this analysis, 31% of NSP targets include sex-disaggregation (range 0–92%). Three countries disaggregated a majority (>50%) of their targets by sex. Sex-disaggregation in data reporting was more common for targets related to the early phases of the HIV care continuum: 83% of countries included any sex-disaggregated targets for HIV prevention, 56% for testing and linkage to care, 22% for improving antiretroviral treatment coverage, and 11% for retention in treatment. The most common target to reduce gender inequality was to prevent gender-based violence (present in 50% of countries). Other commonly incorporated target areas related to improving women’s access to family planning, human and legal rights, and decision-making power. The inclusion of sex-disaggregated targets in national planning is vital to ensure that programmes make progress for all population groups. Improving the availability and quality of indicators to measure gender inequality, as well as evaluating programme outcomes by sex, is critical to tracking this progress. This analysis reveals an urgent need to set specific and separate targets for men and women in order to achieve an equitable and effective HIV response and align government planning with international priorities for gender equality.

Humanitarian Exchange Magazine Number 70 October 2017

Humanitarian Exchange Magazine
http://odihpn.org/magazine/the-humanitarian-consequences-of-violence-in-central-america/
Number 70   October 2017
Special Feature: The Lake Chad Basin: an overlooked crisis?
by Humanitarian Practice Network October 2017
The 70th edition of Humanitarian Exchange, co-edited with Joe Read, focuses on the humanitarian crisis in Nigeria and the Lake Chad Basin. The violence perpetrated by Boko Haram and the counter-insurgency campaign in Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad and Niger has created a humanitarian crisis affecting some 17 million people. Some 2.4 million have been displaced, the vast majority of them in north-eastern Nigeria. Many are living in desperate conditions, without access to sufficient food or clean water. The Nigerian government’s focus on defeating Boko Haram militarily, its reluctance to acknowledge the scale and gravity of the humanitarian crisis and the corresponding reticence of humanitarian leaders to challenge that position have combined to undermine the timeliness and effectiveness of the response…

[Reviewed earlier]

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (formerly Human Vaccines) Volume 13, Issue 11 2017

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (formerly Human Vaccines)
Volume 13, Issue 11 2017
http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/khvi20/current

Article
Effect of combination vaccines on completion and compliance of childhood vaccinations in the United States
Samantha K. Kurosky, Keith L. Davis & Girishanthy Krishnarajah
Pages: 2494-2502
Published online: 07 Sep 2017

Review
Interventions to increase pediatric vaccine uptake: An overview of recent findings
Paula M. Frew & Chelsea S. Lutz
Pages: 2503-2511
Published online: 26 Sep 2017

Article
Effectiveness of a smartphone app to increase parents’ knowledge and empowerment in the MMR vaccination decision: A randomized controlled trial
Marta Fadda, Elisa Galimberti, Maddalena Fiordelli, Luisa Romanò, Alessandro Zanetti & Peter J. Schulz
Pages: 2512-2521
Published online: 10 Nov 2017

Brief Report
The 2016 Lifetime Immunization Schedule, approved by the Italian scientific societies: A new paradigm to promote vaccination at all ages
Paolo Bonanni, Giampietro Chiamenti, Giorgio Conforti, Tommasa Maio, Anna Odone, Rocco Russo, Silvestro Scotti, Carlo Signorelli, Alberto Villani & The Scientific Board of “Lifetime Immunization Schedule”
Pages: 2531-2537
Published online: 19 Oct 2017

Article
Improved parental attitudes and beliefs through stepwise perinatal vaccination education
Aya Saitoh, Akihiko Saitoh, Isamu Sato, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Hajime Kamiya & Satoko Nagata
Pages: 2639-2645
Published online: 30 Aug 2017

Article
Immunization attitudes and practices among family medicine providers
Cynthia A. Bonville, Joseph B. Domachowske, Donald A. Cibula & Manika Suryadevara
Pages: 2646-2653
Published online: 13 Oct 2017

Article
Vaccination among Polish university students. Knowledge, beliefs and anti-vaccination attitudes
Michał Konrad Zarobkiewicz, Aleksandra Zimecka, Tomasz Zuzak, Dominika Cieślak, Jacek Roliński & Ewelina Grywalska
Pages: 2654-2658
Published online: 21 Sep 2017

Article
Approaching a decade since HPV vaccine licensure: Racial and gender disparities in knowledge and awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine
Eric Adjei Boakye, Betelihem B. Tobo, Rebecca P. Rojek, Kahee A. Mohammed, Christian J. Geneus & Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters
Pages: 2713-2722
Published online: 30 Aug 2017

Article commentary
Human papilloma virus vaccine for low and middle income countries: A step too soon?
Har Ashish Jindal, Amanjot Kaur & Sathiabalan Murugan
Pages: 2723-2725
Published online: 28 Aug 2017

An ageing world of the 21st century: a literature review

International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health
Vol 4, No 12 (2017)  December 2017
http://www.ijcmph.com/index.php/ijcmph/issue/view/33

Review Articles
An ageing world of the 21st century: a literature review
Sarah Naja, Mohamed Mohei El Din Makhlouf, Mohamad Abdul Halim Chehab
DOI: 10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20175306
Abstract
Aging is the process of growing older at cellular, organ, or whole body level throughout the life span. Furthermore, the term “demographic transition” refers to a shift in fertility and mortality rates leading to changes in population growth rates, and age distribution. Thus, as people globally live longer, increasing levels of chronic illness as well as diminished wellbeing are nominated to become major global health challenges. Subsequently, the global population of elderly is projected to further increase and reach 1.4 billion by 2030 and 2.1 billion by 2050. Moreover, ageing has important implications on social security, the economy, the organization and delivery of health care, caregiver availability and constraints, society, and policies. Thus, it is pertinent to establish comprehensive elderly-friendly health care with further focus on preventive action to maintain a healthy ageing process.

 

The Revised Declaration of GenevaA Modern-Day Physician’s Pledge

JAMA
November 28, 2017, Vol 318, No. 20, Pages 1955-2054
http://jama.jamanetwork.com/issue.aspx

Viewpoint
The Revised Declaration of GenevaA Modern-Day Physician’s Pledge
Ramin Walter Parsa-Parsi, MD, MPH
free access
JAMA. 2017;318(20):1971-1972. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.16230
This Viewpoint describes the 2017 revision of the World Medical Association’s Declaration of Geneva, which asks physicians to pledge themselves to the highest standards of ethics and practice in the interests of their patients and the medical profession.

Reporting from 8th International Congress on Peer Review and Scientific Publication: Challenges and opportunities for China’s periodical and press industries (pages 243–244)

Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine
November 2017  Volume 10, Issue 4  Pages 241–333
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jebm.2017.10.issue-4/issuetoc

EDITORIAL
Reporting from 8th International Congress on Peer Review and Scientific Publication: Challenges and opportunities for China’s periodical and press industries (pages 243–244)
Yonggang Zhang, Liang Du and Youping Li
Version of Record online: 29 NOV 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/jebm.12279

Essential medicines lists for children of WHO, India, South Africa, and EML of China: A comparative study (pages 271–280)

Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine
November 2017  Volume 10, Issue 4  Pages 241–333
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jebm.2017.10.issue-4/issuetoc
EDITORIAL

Articles
Essential medicines lists for children of WHO, India, South Africa, and EML of China: A comparative study (pages 271–280)
Dan Liu, Jing Cheng, Ling-Li Zhang, You-Ping Li, Li-Nan Zeng, Chuan Zhang and Ge Gui
Version of Record online: 24 MAY 2017 | DOI: 10.1111/jebm.12240
Abstract
Objective
Comparing the essential medicine lists for children and China national essential medicine list 2012, to provide the evidence for establishing essential medicine list for children in China.
Methods
Search the official websites of WHO and some other countries’ ministry of health to get essential medicine lists for children (EMLc) that have already established. Compare the situation of updating, the number and classification of medicines, and the dosage forms in essential medicine lists for children and China national essential medicine list 2012.
Results
By December 2013, the WHO, India, and South Africa have established EMLc. The list of China was for people in all ages, so the number of medicines ranked first in four lists. WHO, India, and China classified the medicines by pharmacologic action, South Africa classified by ATC classification. Except for WHO, India, South Africa, and China did not have specific medicines for neonatal care or medicines for diseases of joints. The main administration routes in these four lists were oral administration, injection, and topical application. There were medicine restrictions in lists of WHO and India, but there were no medicine restrictions in the lists of South Africa and China.
Conclusion
Compared with EMLs for children, the 2012 National Essential Medicine List for China is not suitable for children in China. Development of Chinese EMLc should be based on the burden of diseases for children, and should select applicable dosage forms and specifications.

Typhoid vaccine development with a human challenge model

The Lancet
Dec 02, 2017 Volume 390 Number 10111 p2413-2526  e43-e49
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

Comment
Typhoid vaccine development with a human challenge model
Nicholas A Feasey, Myron M Levine
Published: 2 December 2017
Experimental human typhoid fever challenge was first described in 1896 by Wright, who vaccinated two men against typhoid fever and challenged one with what was then known as Salmonella typhosa.1 While challenge models are sometimes controversial, they offer enormous potential to study the pathogenesis of disease and to accelerate vaccine development, particularly in human-restricted pathogens such as Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The Maryland typhoid human challenge model, which ran from 1952 to 1974, led to insights into typhoid fever and facilitated the development of live attenuated typhoid vaccine Ty21a.2, 3 A 21st-century typhoid challenge model has been developed by the Oxford Vaccine Group.4

In The Lancet, Celina Jin and colleagues5 report results from challenging three groups of healthy adults from Oxford, UK, who were randomly assigned to receive Vi-conjugate vaccine, unconjugated Vi-polysaccharide vaccine, or control vaccine (ACYW135 meningococcal conjugate) with wild-type Quailes strain Salmonella Typhi. Results of this volunteer challenge have been awaited with much anticipation by the public health community interested in control of typhoid fever in endemic areas of south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where S Typhi is increasingly antibiotic resistant and few treatment options remain. Vi-conjugate vaccines that have been in development represent a new instrument to help to control typhoid. The most advanced conjugate vaccine, Typbar-TCV (Vi-polysaccharide [Vi-PS] conjugated to tetanus toxoid, Vi-TT, Bharat Biotech, Hyderabad, India), is licensed in India where it has been shown to elicit robust serum Vi antibody responses after only one dose, even in Indian infants as young as 6 months.6 In toddlers, older children, and adults, Typbar-TCV was shown to be significantly more immunogenic than the unconjugated Bharat Vi-PS.6 Bharat Biotech has submitted an application to WHO for pre-qualification of their Vi-TT. If approved, this would allow the vaccine to be procured by UN agencies. However, despite evidence of safety and immunogenicity in Indian children and adults, heretofore, there has been no evidence of actual efficacy of the vaccine in diminishing the attack rate of typhoid fever upon exposure to virulent S Typhi compared with the control participants. Importantly, the authors provide the first data documenting that Typbar-TCV is protective.

112 participants were enrolled in this observer and participant-blinded, randomised controlled trial, which showed that the Vi-TT is well tolerated, achieved 100% seroconversion of Vi antibody (versus 89% for Vi-PS), and stimulated significantly higher geometric mean titres than did unconjugated Vi-PS. Most importantly, Jin and colleagues document that Vi-TT recipients had a significantly lower attack rate for the primary aim endpoint diagnosing typhoid fever than control recipients. With the primary endpoint used in this ambitious trial, the attack rate for typhoid diagnosis was 24 (77%) of 31 in control participants, 13 (35%) of 37 in Vi-TT recipients, and 13 (35%) of 35 in those who received Vi-PS. This translates into vaccine efficacies of 54·6% (95% CI 26·8–71·8) for Vi-TT and 52·0% (23·2–70·0) for Vi-PS.

As the authors suggest, the field efficacy of Vi-TT vaccine might be higher; for example, a well designed and executed field trial of an unlicensed Vi-conjugate produced by the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, MD, USA) in Vietnamese pre-school children showed an efficacy of 89% (95% CI 76–97) over 46 months of follow-up.7 One possible explanation lies in the primary endpoint of so-called typhoid infection used by Jin and colleagues5 (persistent fever ≥38°C for ≥12 h or S Typhi bacteraemia), which arguably is better suited to studying typhoid pathogenesis than assessing the efficacy of typhoid vaccines. Using slightly different endpoints such as fever 38°C or higher followed by a positive blood culture, similar to surveillance in a field trial and to endpoints used in the Maryland challenge model, Jin and colleagues5 report that the efficacy of Vi-TT was 87·1% (95% CI 47·2–96·9), while efficacy of Vi-PS was 52·3% (−4·2 to 78·2). Although future typhoid challenges based on this as a co-primary endpoint would require larger sample sizes, the information gained might be more relevant and predictive of the efficacy that might be noted in a randomised controlled field trial. This highlights the need for the phase 3 and 4 trials, the first of which is expected to be initiated in Asia in late 2017 by the Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC), a partnership between the University of Maryland, the University of Oxford, and PATH funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. However, because it will be some years before these field trials are reported, Jin and colleagues’ challenge study results are timely and engender optimism that an effective new instrument has become available to help to control typhoid in hyperendemic populations.
NAF declares no competing interests. MML reports co-developing, with colleagues, a Salmonella Enteritidis/Salmonella Typhimurium/Salmonella Typhi Vi trivalent conjugate vaccine against invasive Salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa with Bharat Biotech International as a partner and funding from a Strategic Translation Award from the Wellcome Trust. MML has a US patent, 9011871, issued April 21, 2016, for Broad Spectrum Vaccine Against Typhoidal and non-typhoidal Salmonella disease, for which MML along with James E Galen, Raphael Simon, and Sharon Tennant are inventors.

Efficacy and immunogenicity of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in the prevention of typhoid fever using a controlled human infection model of Salmonella Typhi: a randomised controlled, phase 2b trial

The Lancet
Dec 02, 2017 Volume 390 Number 10111 p2413-2526  e43-e49
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/issue/current

Articles
Efficacy and immunogenicity of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine in the prevention of typhoid fever using a controlled human infection model of Salmonella Typhi: a randomised controlled, phase 2b trial
Celina Jin, Malick M Gibani, Maria Moore, Helene B Juel, Elizabeth Jones, James Meiring, Victoria Harris, Jonathan Gardner, Anna Nebykova, Simon A Kerridge, Jennifer Hill, Helena Thomaides-Brears, Christoph J Blohmke, Ly-Mee Yu, Brian Angus, Andrew J Pollard
2472
Open Access
Summary
Background
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S Typhi) is responsible for an estimated 20 million infections and 200 000 deaths each year in resource poor regions of the world. Capsular Vi-polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Vi-conjugate vaccines) are immunogenic and can be used from infancy but there are no efficacy data for the leading candidate vaccine being considered for widespread use. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed the efficacy of a Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine using an established human infection model of S Typhi.
Methods
In this single-centre, randomised controlled, phase 2b study, using an established outpatient-based human typhoid infection model, we recruited healthy adult volunteers aged between 18 and 60 years, with no previous history of typhoid vaccination, infection, or prolonged residency in a typhoid-endemic region. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive a single dose of Vi-conjugate (Vi-TT), Vi-polysaccharide (Vi-PS), or control meningococcal vaccine with a computer-generated randomisation schedule (block size 6). Investigators and participants were masked to treatment allocation, and an unmasked team of nurses administered the vaccines. Following oral ingestion of S Typhi, participants were assessed with daily blood culture over a 2-week period and diagnosed with typhoid infection when meeting pre-defined criteria. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants diagnosed with typhoid infection (ie, attack rate), defined as persistent fever of 38°C or higher for 12 h or longer or S Typhi bacteraemia, following oral challenge administered 1 month after Vi-vaccination (Vi-TT or Vi-PS) compared with control vaccination. Analysis was per protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02324751, and is ongoing.
Findings
Between Aug 18, 2015, and Nov 4, 2016, 112 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned; 34 to the control group, 37 to the Vi-PS group, and 41 to the Vi-TT group. 103 participants completed challenge (31 in the control group, 35 in the Vi-PS group, and 37 in the Vi-TT group) and were included in the per-protocol population. The composite criteria for typhoid diagnosis was met in 24 (77%) of 31 participants in the control group, 13 (35%) of 37 participants in the Vi-TT group, and 13 (35%) of 35 participants in the Vi-PS group to give vaccine efficacies of 54·6% (95% CI 26·8–71·8) for Vi-TT and 52·0% (23·2–70·0) for Vi-PS. Seroconversion was 100% in Vi-TT and 88·6% in Vi-PS participants, with significantly higher geometric mean titres detected 1-month post-vaccination in Vi-TT vaccinees. Four serious adverse events were reported during the conduct of the study, none of which were related to vaccination (one in the Vi-TT group and three in the Vi-PS group).
Interpretation
Vi-TT is a highly immunogenic vaccine that significantly reduces typhoid fever cases when assessed using a stringent controlled model of typhoid infection. Vi-TT use has the potential to reduce both the burden of typhoid fever and associated health inequality.
Funding
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the European Commission FP7 grant, Advanced Immunization Technologies (ADITEC).

Global, regional, and country-level coverage of interventions to prevent and manage HIV and hepatitis C among people who inject drugs: a systematic review

Lancet Global Health
Dec 2017 Volume 5 Number 12 e1161-e1282
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/langlo/issue/current

Articles
Global, regional, and country-level coverage of interventions to prevent and manage HIV and hepatitis C among people who inject drugs: a systematic review
Sarah Larney, Amy Peacock, Janni Leung, Samantha Colledge, Matthew Hickman, Peter Vickerman, Jason Grebely, Kostyantyn V Dumchev, Paul Griffiths, Lindsey Hines, Evan B Cunningham, Richard P Mattick, Michael Lynskey, John Marsden, John Strang, Louisa Degenhardt
e1208

An effective and safe vaccine will not be enough to prepare us for the next Ebola outbreak

Lancet Infectious Diseases
Dec 2017 Volume 17 Number 12 p1219-1318  e383-e433
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/issue/current

Comment
An effective and safe vaccine will not be enough to prepare us for the next Ebola outbreak
John S Schieffelin
Open Access – Excerpt
…Although this study [Gsell et al] is noteworthy because it provides substantially more safety and efficacy data for the rVSV-EBOV vaccine, it also points out two major hurdles remaining that every Ebola vaccine must overcome in the future, and for the cautionary tale that it provides, one that the international community will hopefully heed. First, the reported adverse event rate in Ebola ça Suffit! was 53·9%, with 98·5% classified as mild to moderate.5 In the present study, the vaccine was better tolerated with only 16% of children and 34% of adults reporting adverse events. With an adverse event rate of up to 50%, social mobilisation efforts to encourage vaccination participation will be challenging in future Ebola outbreaks. How many people refuse the seasonal influenza vaccine each year because they think it gives them the flu? Now imagine a scenario in which people think the vaccine could give them Ebola. This issue leads directly to the vaccine’s second hurdle: misconceptions, rumours, and community resistance. 34% of eligible contacts in Ebola Ça Suffit! refused or withdrew consent.5 In the current study, one affected community refused participation due to mistrust of the Ebola surveillance teams. Community resistance played a prominent part in the spread of Ebola virus during the 2013–15 outbreak.6 A weak public health infrastructure and widespread shortages of health-care workers contributed to fears and misconceptions about an unfamiliar disease with a high mortality. One that is treated in walled-off Ebola treatment units and requires medical burials, denying family members the solace provided by traditional funeral rites. These conditions fuelled rumours, mistrust, and, in some cases, violence. Surveillance, social mobilisation, and vaccination teams trained in distant capitals must seek input and support from local leaders or they risk developing a sense of coercion and distrust…7, 8

Ring vaccination with rVSV-ZEBOV under expanded access in response to an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 2016: an operational and vaccine safety report

Lancet Infectious Diseases
Dec 2017 Volume 17 Number 12 p1219-1318  e383-e433
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/issue/current

Articles

Ring vaccination with rVSV-ZEBOV under expanded access in response to an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, 2016: an operational and vaccine safety report
Pierre-Stéphane Gsell, Anton Camacho, Adam J Kucharski, Conall H Watson, Aminata Bagayoko, Séverine Danmadji Nadlaou, Natalie E Dean, Abdourahamane Diallo, Abdourahmane Diallo, Djidonou A Honora, Moussa Doumbia, Godwin Enwere, Elizabeth S Higgs, Thomas Mauget, Diakite Mory, Ximena Riveros, Fofana Thierno Oumar, Mosoka Fallah, Alhassane Toure, Andrea S Vicari, Ira M Longini, W J Edmunds, Ana Maria Henao-Restrepo, Marie Paule Kieny, Sakoba Kéïta
Open Access
Summary
Background
In March, 2016, a flare-up of Ebola virus disease was reported in Guinea, and in response ring vaccination with the unlicensed rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine was introduced under expanded access, the first time that an Ebola vaccine has been used in an outbreak setting outside a clinical trial. Here we describe the safety of rVSV-ZEBOV candidate vaccine and operational feasibility of ring vaccination as a reactive strategy in a resource-limited rural setting.
Methods
Approval for expanded access and compassionate use was rapidly sought and obtained from relevant authorities. Vaccination teams and frozen vaccine were flown to the outbreak settings. Rings of contacts and contacts of contacts were defined and eligible individuals, who had given informed consent, were vaccinated and followed up for 21 days under good clinical practice conditions.
Findings
Between March 17 and April 21, 2016, 1510 individuals were vaccinated in four rings in Guinea, including 303 individuals aged between 6 years and 17 years and 307 front-line workers. It took 10 days to vaccinate the first participant following the confirmation of the first case of Ebola virus disease. No secondary cases of Ebola virus disease occurred among the vaccinees. Adverse events following vaccination were reported in 47 (17%) 6–17 year olds (all mild) and 412 (36%) adults (individuals older than 18 years; 98% were mild). Children reported fewer arthralgia events than adults (one [<1%] of 303 children vs 81 [7%] of 1207 adults). No severe vaccine-related adverse events were reported.
Interpretation
The results show that a ring vaccination strategy can be rapidly and safely implemented at scale in response to Ebola virus disease outbreaks in rural settings.
Funding
WHO, Gavi, and the World Food Programme.

Lancet Infectious Diseases Dec 2017 Volume 17 Number 12 p1219-1318 e383-e433

Lancet Infectious Diseases
Dec 2017 Volume 17 Number 12 p1219-1318  e383-e433
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/issue/current

Articles
Changes in the prevalence of human papillomavirus following a national bivalent human papillomavirus vaccination programme in Scotland: a 7-year cross-sectional study
Kimberley Kavanagh, Kevin G Pollock, Kate Cuschieri, Tim Palmer, Ross L Cameron, Cameron Watt, Ramya Bhatia, Catherine Moore, Heather Cubie, Margaret Cruickshank, Chris Robertson

Review
The basic reproduction number (R0) of measles: a systematic review
Fiona M Guerra, Shelly Bolotin, Gillian Lim, Jane Heffernan, Shelley L Deeks, Ye Li, Natasha S Crowcroft

Influences on Immunization Decision-Making among US Parents of Young Children

Maternal and Child Health Journal
Volume 21, Issue 12, December 2017
https://link.springer.com/journal/10995/21/12/page/1

Original Paper
Influences on Immunization Decision-Making among US Parents of Young Children
This study assessed influences on vaccination decisions among parents of young children and examined common vaccination information and advice sources.
Yunmi Chung, Jay Schamel, Allison Fisher

HIV Prevention Efforts and Incidence of HIV in Uganda

New England Journal of Medicine
November 30, 2017  Vol. 377 No. 22
http://www.nejm.org/toc/nejm/medical-journal

Original Article
HIV Prevention Efforts and Incidence of HIV in Uganda
Kate Grabowski, Ph.D., David M. Serwadda, M.B., Ch.B., M.P.H., Ronald H. Gray, M.D., Gertrude Nakigozi, M.B., Ch.B., Ph.D., Godfrey Kigozi, M.B., Ch.B., Ph.D., Joseph Kagaayi, M.B., Ch.B., Ph.D., Robert Ssekubugu, M.S.P.H., Fred Nalugoda, Ph.D., Justin Lessler, Ph.D., M.H.S., Thomas Lutalo, Ph.D., Ronald M. Galiwango, M.B., Ch.B., Sc.M., Fred Makumbi, Ph.D., Xiangrong Kong, Ph.D., Donna Kabatesi, M.D., M.P.H., Stella T. Alamo, M.D., M.P.H., Steven Wiersma, M.D., M.P.H., Nelson K. Sewankambo, M.B., Ch.B., Aaron A.R. Tobian, M.D., Ph.D., Oliver Laeyendecker, Ph.D., Thomas C. Quinn, M.D., Steven J. Reynolds, M.D., M.P.H., Maria J. Wawer, M.D., and Larry W. Chang, M.D., M.P.H., for the Rakai Health Sciences Program*

N Engl J Med 2017; 377:2154-2166 November 30, 2017 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1702150
To assess the effect of a combination strategy for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the incidence of HIV infection, we analyzed the association between the incidence of HIV and the scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and medical male circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. Changes in population-level viral-load suppression and sexual behaviors were also examined.

Pediatrics – December 2017, VOLUME 140 / ISSUE 6

 
Pediatrics
December 2017, VOLUME 140 / ISSUE 6
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/140/6?current-issue=y

Articles
Web-based Social Media Intervention to Increase Vaccine Acceptance: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Jason M. Glanz, Nicole M. Wagner, Komal J. Narwaney, Courtney R. Kraus, Jo Ann Shoup, Stanley Xu, Sean T. O’Leary, Saad B. Omer, Kathy S. Gleason, Matthew F. Daley
Pediatrics Dec 2017, 140 (6) e20171117; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-1117
In this RCT, we compare vaccination outcomes in infants of pregnant women exposed to either a VSM intervention, a VI Web site, or UC.

Articles
4-Valent Human Papillomavirus (4vHPV) Vaccine in Preadolescents and Adolescents After 10 Years
Daron G. Ferris, Rudiwilai Samakoses, Stanley L. Block, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Jaime Alberto Restrepo, Jesper Mehlsen, Archana Chatterjee, Ole-Erik Iversen, Amita Joshi, Jian-Li Chu, Andrea Likos Krick, Alfred Saah, Rituparna Das
Pediatrics Dec 2017, 140 (6) e20163947; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-3947
This report summarizes the immunogenicity, effectiveness, and safety of the 4vHPV vaccine in adolescent and preadolescent subjects after 10 years.

malERA: An updated research agenda for malaria elimination and eradication

PLoS Medicine
http://www.plosmedicine.org/
(Accessed 2 December 2017)

Collection Review
malERA: An updated research agenda for malaria elimination and eradication
Regina N. Rabinovich, Chris Drakeley, Abdoulaye A. Djimde, B. Fenton Hall, Simon I. Hay, Janet Hemingway, David C. Kaslow, Abdisalan Noor, Fredros Okumu, Richard Steketee, Marcel Tanner, Timothy N. C. Wells, Maxine A. Whittaker, Elizabeth A. Winzeler, Dyann F. Wirth, Kate Whitfield, Pedro L. Alonso
| published 30 Nov 2017 PLOS Medicine
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002456
Abstract
Achieving a malaria-free world presents exciting scientific challenges as well as overwhelming health, equity, and economic benefits. WHO and countries are setting ambitious goals for reducing the burden and eliminating malaria through the “Global Technical Strategy” and 21 countries are aiming to eliminate malaria by 2020. The commitment to achieve these targets should be celebrated. However, the need for innovation to achieve these goals, sustain elimination, and free the world of malaria is greater than ever. Over 180 experts across multiple disciplines are engaged in the Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) Refresh process to address problems that need to be solved. The result is a research and development agenda to accelerate malaria elimination and, in the longer term, transform the malaria community’s ability to eradicate it globally.

malERA: An updated research agenda for diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector control in malaria elimination and eradication

PLoS Medicine
http://www.plosmedicine.org/
(Accessed 2 December 2017)

Collection Review
malERA: An updated research agenda for diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector control in malaria elimination and eradication
The malERA Refresh Consultative Panel on Tools for Malaria Elimination
| published 30 Nov 2017 PLOS Medicine
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002455
Abstract
Since the turn of the century, a remarkable expansion has been achieved in the range and effectiveness of products and strategies available to prevent, treat, and control malaria, including advances in diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, and vector control. These advances have once again put malaria elimination on the agenda. However, it is clear that even with the means available today, malaria control and elimination pose a formidable challenge in many settings. Thus, currently available resources must be used more effectively, and new products and approaches likely to achieve these goals must be developed. This paper considers tools (both those available and others that may be required) to achieve and maintain malaria elimination. New diagnostics are needed to direct treatment and detect transmission potential; new drugs and vaccines to overcome existing resistance and protect against clinical and severe disease, as well as block transmission and prevent relapses; and new vector control measures to overcome insecticide resistance and more powerfully interrupt transmission. It is also essential that strategies for combining new and existing approaches are developed for different settings to maximise their longevity and effectiveness in areas with continuing transmission and receptivity. For areas where local elimination has been recently achieved, understanding which measures are needed to maintain elimination is necessary to prevent rebound and the reestablishment of transmission. This becomes increasingly important as more countries move towards elimination.

 

PLoS Medicine (Accessed 2 December 2017)

PLoS Medicine
http://www.plosmedicine.org/
(Accessed 2 December 2017)

Collection Review
 malERA: An updated research agenda for health systems and policy research in malaria elimination and eradication
The malERA Refresh Consultative Panel on Health Systems and Policy Research
| published 30 Nov 2017 PLOS Medicine
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002454

Collection Review
malERA: An updated research agenda for combination interventions and modelling in malaria elimination and eradication
The malERA Refresh Consultative Panel on Combination Interventions and Modelling
Collection Review | published 30 Nov 2017 PLOS Medicine
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002453

Collection Review
malERA: An updated research agenda for characterising the reservoir and measuring transmission in malaria elimination and eradication
The malERA Refresh Consultative Panel on Characterising the Reservoir and Measuring Transmission
Collection Review | published 30 Nov 2017 PLOS Medicine
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002452

Collection Review
malERA: An updated research agenda for basic science and enabling technologies in malaria elimination and eradication
The malERA Refresh Consultative Panel on Basic Science and Enabling Technologies
Collection Review | published 30 Nov 2017 PLOS Medicine
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002451

Collection Review
malERA: An updated research agenda for insecticide and drug resistance in malaria elimination and eradication
The malERA Refresh Consultative Panel on Insecticide and Drug Resistance
Collection Review | published 30 Nov 2017 PLOS Medicine
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002450

The importance of thinking beyond the water-supply in cholera epidemics: A historical urban case-study

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
http://www.plosntds.org/
(Accessed 2 December 2017)

Research Article
The importance of thinking beyond the water-supply in cholera epidemics: A historical urban case-study
Matthew D. Phelps, Andrew S. Azman, Joseph A. Lewnard, Marina Antillón, Lone Simonsen, Viggo Andreasen, Peter K. M. Jensen, Virginia E. Pitzer
| published 27 Nov 2017 PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006103
Conclusions/Significance
Spatially targeted cholera interventions, such as reactive vaccination or sanitation/hygiene campaigns in hotspot neighborhoods, would likely have been more effective in this epidemic than control measures aimed at interrupting long-cycle transmission, such as improving municipal water quality. We recommend public health planners consider programs aimed at interrupting short-cycle transmission as essential tools in the cholera control arsenal.

PLoS One

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/

Research Article
Safety and efficacy of an oxycodone vaccine: Addressing some of the unique considerations posed by opioid abuse
D. Raleigh, S. J. Peterson, M. Laudenbach, F. Baruffaldi, F. I. Carroll, S. D. Comer, H. A. Navarro, T. L. Langston, S. P. Runyon, S. Winston, M. Pravetoni, P. R. Pentel
| published 01 Dec 2017 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184876

Cost-effectiveness of expanding childhood routine immunization against Neisseria meningitidis serogroups C, W and Y with a quadrivalent conjugate vaccine in the African meningitis belt
Andreas Kuznik, Garba Iliyasu, Mohammed Lamorde, Mustapha Mahmud, Baba M. Musa, Ibrahim Nashabaru, Stephen Obaro, Idris Mohammed, Abdulrazaq G. Habib
Research Article | published 30 Nov 2017 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188595

Modelling the effects of quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Puerto Rico
Ana Patricia Ortiz, Karen J. Ortiz-Ortiz, Moraima Ríos, José Laborde, Amit Kulkarni, Matthew Pillsbury, Andreas Lauschke, Homero A. Monsanto, Cecile Marques-Goyco
Research Article | published 30 Nov 2017 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184540

Predictors of seasonal influenza vaccination among older adults in Thailand
Prabda Praphasiri, Darunee Ditsungnoen, Supakit Sirilak, Jarawee Rattanayot, Peera Areerat, Fatimah S. Dawood, Kim A. Lindblade
Research Article | published 29 Nov 2017 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0188422

Moving forward on strengthening and sustaining National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) globally: Recommendations from the 2nd global NITAG network meeting

Vaccine
Volume 35, Issue 50
http://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/35/issue/50

Conference report
Moving forward on strengthening and sustaining National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) globally: Recommendations from the 2nd global NITAG network meeting
Open access
Pages 6925–6930
Noni E. MacDonald, Philippe Duclos, Ole Wichmann, Louise Henaff, … Rupa Rajbhandari Singh
Abstract
National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) provide independent, evidence-informed advice to assist their governments in immunization policy formation. This is complex work and many NITAGs face challenges in fulfilling their roles. Inter-country NITAG collaboration opportunities have the potential to enhance NITAG function and grow the quality of recommendations. Hence the many requests for formation of a network linking NITAGs together so they can learn from each other. The first Global NITAG Network (GNN) meeting, held in 2016, led to a push to launch the GNN and grow the network. At the second GNN meeting, held June 28–29, 2017 in Berlin, the GNN was formally inaugurated. Participants discussed GNN governance, reflected on the April 2017 Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on Immunization conclusions concerning strengthening of NITAGs and also shared NITAG experiences in evaluation and inter-country collaborations and independence. They also discussed the role of Regional Technical Advisory Groups on Immunization (RTAGs) and regional networks. A number of issues were raised including NITAGs and communications, dissemination of recommendations and vaccine implementation as well as implications of off-label recommendations. Participants were alerted to immunization evidence assessment sites and value of sharing of resources. They also discussed potential GNN funding opportunities, developed an action plan for 2017–18 and selected a Steering Committee to help move the GNN forward. All participants agreed on the importance of the GNN and the value in attracting more countries to join the GNN.

Vaccine – Volume 35, Issue 50

Vaccine
Volume 35, Issue 50
http://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/35/issue/50

Commentary
A behavioral economics approach to the failed HPV vaccination program in Japan
Open access
Pages 6931–6933
Asami Yagi, Yutaka Ueda, Tadashi Kimura

Short communications
Driving immunization through the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit: A growing opportunity

Pages 6938–6940
Angela K. Shen, Rob Warnock, Jeffrey A. Kelman
This study analyzes Medicare Part B fee-for-service claims from 2011 to 2016 to assess AWV and seasonal influenza and pneumococcal conjugate vaccinations utilization over time.
Original research article
Dengue vaccine supplies under endemic and epidemic conditions in three dengue-endemic countries: Colombia, Thailand, and Vietnam
Pages 6957–6966
Jung-Seok Lee, Jacqueline K. Lim, Duc Anh Dang, Thi Hien Anh Nguyen, Andrew Farlow

Media/Policy Watch

Media/Policy Watch
This watch section is intended to alert readers to substantive news, analysis and opinion from the general media and selected think tanks and similar organizations on vaccines, immunization, global public health and related themes. Media Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues CVEP is actively tracking. This section will grow from an initial base of newspapers, magazines and blog sources, and is segregated from Journal Watch above which scans the peer-reviewed journal ecology.
We acknowledge the Western/Northern bias in this initial selection of titles and invite suggestions for expanded coverage. We are conservative in our outlook in adding news sources which largely report on primary content we are already covering above. Many electronic media sources have tiered, fee-based subscription models for access. We will provide full-text where content is published without restriction, but most publications require registration and some subscription level.
 
 
The Guardian
http://www.guardiannews.com/
Accessed 2 December 2017
Japanese Doctor wins 2017 John Maddox prize for countering HPV vaccine misinformation
30 November 2017
A Japanese doctor who has stood up to a campaign of misinformation around a common anti-cancer vaccine has won a prestigious prize for championing evidence in the face of hostility and personal threats.
Riko Muranaka at Kyoto University was awarded the 2017 John Maddox prize on Thursday for her efforts to explain the safety of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine amid strong opposition from anti-vaccine activists and a small group of academics.
Muranaka was praised by colleagues for her courage and leadership as she endured insults, litigation and attempts to undermine her professional status as the HPV vaccine came under attack in Japan. While the jab is used without fuss in many countries, in Japan and some other nations, fears raised by campaigners have hit vaccine uptake rates…

New Yorker
http://www.newyorker.com/
Accessed 2 December 2017
Lake Chad: The World’s Most Complex Humanitarian Disaster
A Reporter at Large  By Ben Taub
December 4, 2017 Issue
Boko Haram, climate change, predatory armies, and extreme hunger are converging on a marginalized population in Central Africa.
 
New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/
Accessed 2 December 2017
Ravaged by Cholera, Yemen Faces 2nd Preventable Scourge: Diphtheria
Aid officials said the Saudi blockade of Yemen was now impeding their ability to fight diphtheria, once thought to have been largely eradicated.
December 01, 2017 – By RICK GLADSTONE – World – Print Headline: “Diphtheria Threatens To Escalate In Yemen”

Philippines Suspends Dengue Shots After Drug Firm’s Warning
More than 740,000 students have already received Dengvaxia vaccinations, which could pose health risks for people not previously infected.
December 01, 2017 – By FELIPE VILLAMOR
[See Milestones/Perspectives above for additional details]
 
Wall Street Journal
http://online.wsj.com/home-page?_wsjregion=na,us&_homepage=/home/us
Accessed 2 December 2017
World
In Rwanda, Drones Deliver Medical Supplies to Remote Areas
By Robert Lee Hotz
Dec. 1, 2017 5:48 am ET
Several drone companies are using cutting-edge technology to deliver essential medical supplies to remote areas—and, in the process, gaining experience that could be used for shipments in more densely populated places.

Think Tanks et al

Think Tanks et al

Center for Global Development  
http://www.cgdev.org/page/press-center
Accessed 2 December 2017
Blog Post
New Evidence on the Health Loss but not the Health Gain from WHO’s 2009 AIDS Treatment Guidelines
12/1/17
Mead Over
We here at CGD tend to be critical of international agencies like WHO or the UNDP for establishing targets or guidelines without sufficient consideration of the impacts, for good and ill, of those guidelines in the affected countries. Such guidelines often apply standards more appropriate to rich countries and then pressure poor countries to behave as if they were rich.