From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

Frontiers in Public Health
Received: 11 Nov 2017; Accepted: 16 Jan 2018. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2018.00013
Original Research Aerticle
National immunisation campaigns with oral polio vaccine reduce all-cause mortality: A natural experiment within seven randomised trials
Andreas Andersen1, Ane B. Fisker1, Amabelia Rodrigues1, Cesario Martins1, Henrik Ravn1, Najaaraq Lund1, Sofie Biering-Sørensen1, Christine S. Benn1 and Peter Aaby1*
A recent WHO review concluded that live BCG and measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects (NSEs) reducing mortality from non-targeted diseases. NSEs of oral polio vaccine (OPV) were not examined. If OPV vaccination campaigns reduce the mortality rate it would suggest beneficial NSEs.
Between 2002 and 2014 Guinea-Bissau had 15 general OPV campaigns and other campaigns with OPV plus vitamin A supplementation (VAS), VAS-only, MV and H1N1 vaccine. In this period, we conducted seven randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with mortality as main outcome.
Within these RCTs we assessed whether the mortality rate was lower after-campaign than before-campaign. We used Cox models with age as underlying time and further adjusted for low birth-weight, season and time trend in mortality. We calculated the adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) for after-campaign versus before-campaign.
The mortality rate was lower after OPV-only campaigns than before, the MRR being 0.81 (95% CI=0.68-0.95). With each additional dose of campaign-OPV the mortality rate declined further (MRR=0.87 (95% CI: 0.79-0.96) per dose) (test for trend, p=0.005). No other type of campaign had similar beneficial effects. Depending on initial age and with follow-up to 3 years of age, the number needed to treat with campaign-OPV-only to save one life was between 68 and 230 children.
Bissau had no case of polio infection so the results suggest that campaign-OPV has beneficial NSEs. Discontinuation of OPV-campaigns in low-income countries may affect general child mortality levels negatively

Journal of Pediatric Infectious Diseases
DOI: 10.1055/s-0037-1620266
Original Article
Development of Vaccine Preferences among Parents of Newborns
JN Yarnall, J Knowles, JA Lohr -, 2018
Vaccine hesitancy and refusal and the resulting outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases continue to be an issue today. Most of contemporary research on these issues has focused on underlying characteristics of non-vaccinators and ambivalent parents; however, few studies have looked into how or when vaccine preferences develop. In this study, we sought to explore when parental preferences for vaccines develop in relation to a pregnancy. We also examined self-reported influences on vaccine decision making.
We recruited and administered a short survey to parents at the North Carolina Women’s Hospital in Chapel Hill, NC, following the birth of their child from February to April 2015.
A total of 166 parents (55%) completed the entire survey. Seventy-two percent of surveyed parents reported deciding on their vaccine preferences for their newborn before conception. Parents who were older, Caucasian, married, and had attained higher levels of education were significantly more likely to develop preconception vaccine preferences. The presence of partner conversations in the past and the desire for more information on vaccines were also significant predictors of preconception vaccine preference development. After logistic regression adjustment, only education level and past vaccine conversations remained significant. The most common influences for vaccine decision making were family, friends, and medical staff and organizations.
Our study documents that a majority of parents establish vaccine decision making and preferences before conception. Notable influences from friends, family, and medical sources are part of the process. These findings suggest that vaccine information and interventions currently are given too late in the vaccine preference decision-making process.