Why Is Eradicating Typhoid Fever So Challenging: Implications for Vaccine and Therapeutic Design

Vaccines — Open Access Journal
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines
(Accessed 28 Jul 2018)

Review  Open Access
Why Is Eradicating Typhoid Fever So Challenging: Implications for Vaccine and Therapeutic Design
by Yi-An Yang, Alexander Chong and Jeongmin Song
Vaccines 2018, 6(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines6030045 – 24 July 2018
Abstract
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and S. Paratyphi, namely typhoidal Salmonellae, are the cause of (para) typhoid fever, which is a devastating systemic infectious disease in humans. In addition, the spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) S. Typhi in many low and middle-income countries poses a significant risk to human health. While currently available typhoid vaccines and therapeutics are efficacious, they have some limitations. One important limitation is the lack of controlling individuals who chronically carry S. Typhi. However, due to the strict host specificity of S. Typhi to humans, S. Typhi research is hampered. As a result, our understanding of S. Typhi pathogenesis is incomplete, thereby delaying the development and improvement of prevention and treatment strategies. Nonetheless, to better combat and contain S. Typhi, it is vital to develop a vaccine and therapy for controlling both acutely and chronically infected individuals. This review discusses how scientists are trying to combat typhoid fever, why it is so challenging to do so, which approaches show promise, and what we know about the pathogenesis of S. Typhi chronic infection