Therapeutic Vaccines for Genitourinary Malignancies

Vaccines — Open Access Journal
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines
(Accessed 18 Aug 2018)

Open Access  Review
Therapeutic Vaccines for Genitourinary Malignancies
by Giselle M. A. Dutcher and Mehmet Asim Bilen
Vaccines 2018, 6(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines6030055 – 12 August 2018
Abstract
The field of genitourinary malignancies has been a showcase for therapeutic cancer vaccine success since the application of intravesicular Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for bladder cancer in the 1970s and enjoyed a renaissance in 2010 with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of sipuleucel-T for prostate cancer. Several vaccine strategies have emerged, such as autologous or allogeneic whole-tumor vaccines, DNA vaccines, use of viral vectors, and peptides as immunostimulatory adjuvants. Despite impressive early trials, vaccine monotherapy has achieved limited success in the clinical world; however, combinations of vaccine and immune checkpoint inhibition or vaccine and cytokine stimulation are expected to move the field forward. This article reviews pivotal trials of cancer vaccines in prostate, renal, and bladder cancer and ongoing trials combining vaccines with other immune therapy agents