Development of a valid and reliable scale to assess parents’ beliefs and attitudes about childhood vaccines and their association with vaccination uptake and delay in Ghana

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 6  Pages 763-898 (4 February 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/6

Research article   Abstract only
Development of a valid and reliable scale to assess parents’ beliefs and attitudes about childhood vaccines and their association with vaccination uptake and delay in Ghana
Aaron S. Wallace, Kathleen Wannemuehler, George Bonsu, Melissa Wardle, … Saad B. Omer
Pages 848-856

A multilevel analysis of factors influencing the inaccuracy of parental reports of adolescent HPV vaccination status

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 6  Pages 763-898 (4 February 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/6

Research article   Abstract only
A multilevel analysis of factors influencing the inaccuracy of parental reports of adolescent HPV vaccination status
Milkie Vu, Minh Luu, Regine Haardörfer, Carla J. Berg, … Robert A. Bednarczyk
Pages 869-876

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
2019 Jan 13. doi: 10.12932/AP-100518-0309. [Epub ahead of print]
Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
E Prompetchara, C Ketloy, SJ Thomas, K Ruxrungtham
Abstract
The first licensed dengue vaccine, CYD-TDV (Dengvaxia®), has received regulatory approval in a number of countries. However, this vaccine has some limitations. Its efficacy against DENV2 was consistently lower than other serotypes. Protective efficacy also depended on prior dengue sero-status of the vaccinees. Lower efficacy was observed in children with < 9 years old and dengue-na?ve individuals. More importantly, risk of hospitalization and severe dengue was increased in the youngest vaccine recipients (2-5 years) compared to controls. Thus, the quest of a better vaccine candidate continues. There are two live-attenuated vaccine candidates currently testing in phase III trial including DENVax, developed by US CDC and Inviragen (now licensed to Takeda) and TV003/TV005, constructed by US NIAID. In addition, there are several phase I-II as well as preclinical phase studies evaluating vaccines for safety and immunogenicity, this include other live-attenuated platform/strategy, purified-inactivated viruses formulated with adjuvants, DNA vaccine, subunit vaccine, viral vector and also heterologous prime/boost strategies. The major difficulties of dengue vaccine development are included the lack of the best animal model, various immune status of individual especially in endemic areas and clear cut off of protective immunity. Several research and development efforts are ongoing to find a better effective and accessible dengue vaccine for people needed.

 

Media/Policy Watch

Media/Policy Watch

This watch section is intended to alert readers to substantive news, analysis and opinion from the general media and selected think tanks and similar organizations on vaccines, immunization, global public health and related themes. Media Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues CVEP is actively tracking. This section will grow from an initial base of newspapers, magazines and blog sources, and is segregated from Journal Watch above which scans the peer-reviewed journal ecology.

We acknowledge the Western/Northern bias in this initial selection of titles and invite suggestions for expanded coverage. We are conservative in our outlook in adding news sources which largely report on primary content we are already covering above. Many electronic media sources have tiered, fee-based subscription models for access. We will provide full-text where content is published without restriction, but most publications require registration and some subscription level.

 
 

The Atlantic
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]
 
 
BBC
http://www.bbc.co.uk/
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]
 
 
The Economist
http://www.economist.com/
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
Charlemagne –
The campaign against vaccination
Disease will be a major political battleground in the coming decades
Jan 19th 2019
 
 
Financial Times
http://www.ft.com/home/uk
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
Delivery innovation spreads vaccines’ benefits
22 January 2019
While some scientists seek vaccine breakthroughs for cancerHIV and malaria, others are focusing on a more basic problem: ensuring that the vaccines we have reach those in need.
 
 
Forbes
http://www.forbes.com/
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]
 
 
Foreign Affairs
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]
 
 
Foreign Policy
http://foreignpolicy.com/
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]
 
 
The Guardian
http://www.guardiannews.com/
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]
 
 
New Yorker
http://www.newyorker.com/
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
As Told To
Amid a Measles Outbreak, an Ultra-Orthodox Nurse Fights Vaccination Fears in Her Community
“We live in close quarters with extended family. So we should consider ourselves especially obligated to prevent harm to our fellow community members,” Blima Marcus said.
By Amanda Schaffer
January 25, 2019
 
 
New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
How to Inoculate Against Anti-Vaxxers
19 January 2019
…Thwarting this danger will require a campaign as bold and aggressive as the one being waged by the anti-vaccination contingent. And to launch such a campaign would require overcoming strong inertia: a waning public health apparatus, countervailing politics and a collective amnesia over the havoc the diseases in question once wrought. But to succeed would be to rescue from oblivion one of the greatest triumphs of human ingenuity over disease — and to save countless lives.
 
 
Wall Street Journal
http://online.wsj.com/home-page?_wsjregion=na,us&_homepage=/home/us
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
Health
Washington State Becomes Latest Hot Spot in Measles Outbreak
By Brianna Abbott
Jan. 23, 2019 5:06 pm ET
The U.S. is experiencing outbreaks of measles, largely due to a drop in vaccination rates in some areas. An outbreak in Washington state has sickened 23 people this month.
Appeared in the January 23, 2019, print edition as ‘Measles Breaks Out in the Northwest.’
 
 
Washington Post
http://www.washingtonpost.com/
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
Officials in anti-vaccination ‘hotspot’ near Portland declare an emergency over measles outbreak
Isaac Stanley-Becker  Jan 23, 2019
 
 
The Latest: Merck to ship 120,000 more Ebola vaccine doses
Associated Press   Jan 22, 2019

 

Think Tanks et al

Think Tanks et al

 Brookings
http://www.brookings.edu/
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
[No new relevant content]

Center for Global Development  
http://www.cgdev.org/page/press-center
[No new relevant content]

CSIS
https://www.csis.org/
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
[No new relevant content]

Council on Foreign Relations
http://www.cfr.org/
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
[No new relevant content]

 Kaiser Family Foundation
https://www.kff.org/search/?post_type=press-release
Accessed 26 Jan 2019
[No new relevant content]

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review :: 19 January 2019

.– Request an Email Summary: Vaccines and Global Health : The Week in Review is published as a single email summary, scheduled for release each Saturday evening before midnight (EDT in the U.S.). If you would like to receive the email version, please send your request to david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org.

 pdf version A pdf of the current issue is available here: vaccines and global health_the week in review_19 jan 2019

– blog edition: comprised of the approx. 35+ entries posted below.

– Twitter:  Readers can also follow developments on twitter: @vaxethicspolicy.
.
– Links:  We endeavor to test each link as we incorporate it into any post, but recognize that some links may become “stale” as publications and websites reorganize content over time. We apologize in advance for any links that may not be operative. We believe the contextual information in a given post should allow retrieval, but please contact us as above for assistance if necessary.

Support this knowledge-sharing service: Your financial support helps us cover our costs and to address a current shortfall in our annual operating budget. Click here to donate and thank you in advance for your contribution.

.
David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

WHO: Ten threats to global health in 2019

Milestones :: Perspectives

::::::

WHO: Ten threats to global health in 2019

[Selected full text]
Air pollution and climate change
 
Noncommunicable diseases
 
Global influenza pandemic

The world will face another influenza pandemic – the only thing we don’t know is when it will hit and how severe it will be. Global defences are only as effective as the weakest link in any country’s health emergency preparedness and response system.

WHO is constantly monitoring the circulation of influenza viruses to detect potential pandemic strains: 153 institutions in 114 countries are involved in global surveillance and response.

Every year, WHO recommends which strains should be included in the flu vaccine to protect people from seasonal flu. In the event that a new flu strain develops pandemic potential, WHO has set up a unique partnership with all the major players to ensure effective and equitable access to diagnostics, vaccines and antivirals (treatments), especially in developing countries.

Fragile and vulnerable settings

More than 1.6 billion people (22% of the global population) live in places where protracted crises (through a combination of challenges such as drought, famine, conflict, and population displacement) and weak health services leave them without access to basic care.

Fragile settings exist in almost all regions of the world, and these are where half of the key targets in the sustainable development goals, including on child and maternal health, remains unmet.

WHO will continue to work in these countries to strengthen health systems so that they are better prepared to detect and respond to outbreaks, as well as able to deliver high quality health services, including immunization.

Antimicrobial resistance

The development of antibiotics, antivirals and antimalarials are some of modern medicine’s greatest successes. Now, time with these drugs is running out. Antimicrobial resistance – the ability of bacteria, parasites, viruses and fungi to resist these medicines – threatens to send us back to a time when we were unable to easily treat infections such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhoea, and salmonellosis. The inability to prevent infections could seriously compromise surgery and procedures such as chemotherapy.

Resistance to tuberculosis drugs is a formidable obstacle to fighting a disease that causes around 10 million people to fall ill, and 1.6 million to die, every year. In 2017, around 600 000 cases of tuberculosis were resistant to rifampicin – the most effective first-line drug – and 82% of these people had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

Drug resistance is driven by the overuse of antimicrobials in people, but also in animals, especially those used for food production, as well as in the environment. WHO is working with these sectors to implement a global action plan to tackle antimicrobial resistance by increasing awareness and knowledge, reducing infection, and encouraging prudent use of antimicrobials.

Ebola and other high-threat pathogens

In 2018, the Democratic Republic of the Congo saw two separate Ebola outbreaks, both of which spread to cities of more than 1 million people. One of the affected provinces  is also in an active conflict zone.

This shows that the context in which an epidemic of a high-threat pathogen like Ebola erupts is critical –  what happened in rural outbreaks in the past doesn’t always apply to densely populated urban areas or conflict-affected areas.

At a conference on Preparedness for Public Health Emergencies held last December, participants from the public health, animal health, transport and tourism sectors focussed on the growing challenges of tackling outbreaks and health emergencies in urban areas. They called for WHO and partners to designate 2019 as a “Year of action on preparedness for health emergencies”.

WHO’s R&D Blueprint identifies diseases and pathogens that have potential to cause a public health emergency but lack effective treatments and vaccines. This watchlist for priority research and development includes Ebola, several other haemorrhagic fevers, Zika, Nipah, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and disease X, which represents the need to prepare for an unknown pathogen that could cause a serious epidemic.

Weak primary health care  

Vaccine hesitancy

Vaccine hesitancy – the reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines – threatens to reverse progress made in tackling vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccination is one of the most cost-effective ways of avoiding disease – it currently prevents 2-3 million deaths a year, and a further 1.5 million could be avoided if global coverage of vaccinations improved.

Measles, for example, has seen a 30% increase in cases globally. The reasons for this rise are complex, and not all of these cases are due to vaccine hesitancy. However, some countries that were close to eliminating the disease have seen a resurgence.

The reasons why people choose not to vaccinate are complex; a vaccines advisory group to WHO identified complacency, inconvenience in accessing vaccines, and lack of confidence are key reasons underlying hesitancy. Health workers, especially those in communities, remain the most trusted advisor and influencer of vaccination decisions, and they must be supported to provide trusted, credible information on vaccines.

In 2019, WHO will ramp up work to eliminate cervical cancer worldwide by increasing coverage of the HPV vaccine, among other interventions. 2019 may also be the year when transmission of wild poliovirus is stopped in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Last year, less than 30 cases were reported in both countries. WHO and partners are committed to supporting these countries to vaccinate every last child to eradicate this crippling disease for good.

Dengue

Dengue, a mosquito-borne disease that causes flu-like symptoms and can be lethal and kill up to 20% of those with severe dengue, has been a growing threat for decades.

A high number of cases occur in the rainy seasons of countries such as Bangladesh and India. Now, its season in these countries is lengthening significantly (in 2018, Bangladesh saw the highest number of deaths in almost two decades), and the disease is spreading to less tropical and more temperate countries such as Nepal, that have not traditionally seen the disease.

An estimated 40% of the world is at risk of dengue fever, and there are around 390 million infections a year. WHO’s Dengue control strategy aims to reduce deaths by 50% by 2020.

HIV

The progress made against HIV has been enormous in terms of getting people tested, providing them with antiretrovirals (22 million are on treatment), and providing access to preventive measures such as a pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP, which is when people at risk of HIV take antiretrovirals to prevent infection).

However, the epidemic continues to rage with nearly a million people every year dying of HIV/AIDS. Since the beginning of the epidemic, more than 70 million people have acquired the infection, and about 35 million people have died. Today, around 37 million worldwide live with HIV. Reaching people like sex workers, people in prison, men who have sex with men, or transgender people is hugely challenging. Often these groups are excluded from health services. A group increasingly affected by HIV are young girls and women (aged 15–24), who are particularly at high risk and account for 1 in 4 HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa despite being only 10% of the population.

This year, WHO will work with countries to support the introduction of self-testing so that more people living with HIV know their status and can receive treatment (or preventive measures in the case of a negative test result). One activity will be to act on new guidance announced In December 2018, by WHO and the International Labour Organization to support companies and organizations to offer HIV self-tests in the workplace.

 

WHO statement on reports of alleged misconduct

Milestones :: Perspectives

WHO statement on reports of alleged misconduct

17 January 2019

Statement

WHO is aware of a news story published today about allegations of misconduct in the organization.

The allegations are being investigated according to WHO’s established procedures, having been referred to WHO’s Office of Internal Oversight Services by the Director-General, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus.

The anonymous allegations, which had been circulating internally, were also addressed openly by Dr Tedros in global meetings with staff in which he stressed that WHO has zero tolerance for misconduct or discrimination of any kind.

Since Dr Tedros took office as Director-General in July 2017, he has championed openness, transparency and diversity. WHO’s senior management team is now one of the most diverse and gender-balanced of any United Nations agency. All regions of the world are represented and almost two-thirds are women. WHO is working consistently to increase geographical diversity and improve gender balance at all levels as part of its ongoing transformation process.

WHO has established mechanisms by which anyone inside or outside the organization can report concerns about any form of suspected misconduct by WHO personnel. WHO has recently strengthened the capacity of its internal oversight mechanisms and has proven processes for reporting and dealing with allegations of misconduct.

These include an independently-run integrity hotline which anyone can use to report concerns confidentially and anonymously. We regularly report the outcome of substantiated allegations arising from independent investigations to Member States in our reports to Governing Bodies. All these reports are posted on our public website.

WHO listens to all feedback so we can learn and improve and provide the best possible advice and assistance to countries.

 

AP Exclusive: UN health chief orders probe into misconduct

Milestones :: Perspectives

AP Exclusive: UN health chief orders probe into misconduct

By MARIA CHENG

Associates Press  January 17, 2019

LONDON (AP) — The head of the World Health Organization has ordered an internal investigation into allegations the U.N. health agency is rife with racism, sexism and corruption, after a series of anonymous emails with the explosive charges were sent to top managers last year.

 

Three emails addressed to WHO directors — and obtained by the Associated Press — complained about “systematic racial discrimination” against African staffers and alleged other instances of wrongdoing, including claims that some of the money intended to fight Ebola in Congo was misspent.

 

Last month, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus told staffers he had instructed the head of WHO’s office of internal oversight to look into the charges raised by the emails. He confirmed that directive to the AP on Thursday.

 

A WHO statement issued after the AP story was published said the agency was “aware” of such allegations and has “zero tolerance for misconduct or discrimination of any kind.” The statement said Tedros has “championed openness, transparency and diversity” since he became WHO’s chief.

 

However, critics doubt that WHO can effectively investigate itself and have called for the probe to be made public.

 

The first email, which was sent last April, claimed there was “systematic racial discrimination against Africans at WHO” and that African staffers were being “abused, sworn at (and) shown contempt to” by their Geneva-based colleagues.

 

Two further emails addressed to WHO directors complained that senior officials were “attempting to stifle” investigations into such problems and also alleged other instances of wrongdoing, including allegedly misspent Ebola funds.

 

The last email, sent in December, labeled the behavior of a senior doctor helping to lead the response against Ebola as “unacceptable, unprofessional and racist,” citing a November incident at a meeting where the doctor reportedly “humiliated, disgraced and belittled” a subordinate from the Middle East.

 

Tedros — a former health minister of Ethiopia and WHO’s first African director-general — said investigators looking into the charges “have all my support” and that he would provide more resources if necessary.

 

“To those that are giving us feedback, thank you,” he told a meeting of WHO’s country representatives in Nairobi last month. “We will do everything to correct (it) if there are problems.”

 

 

144th Session of the WHO Executive Board

Milestones :: Perspectives

144th Session of the WHO Executive Board

24 January – 1 February 2019 Coordinated Universal Time

Geneva, Switzerland

Selected Agenda Content

EB144/1 – Provisional agenda
EB144/1 (annotated) – Provisional agenda (annotated)

EB144/8 – Public health preparedness and response
Report of the Independent Oversight and Advisory Committee for the WHO Health Emergencies Programme

EB144/9 – Polio Eradication
EB144/10 – Polio Transition

EB144/11 Rev.1 – Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

EB144/12 – Universal health coverage
Primary health care towards universal health coverage
EB144/13 – Universal health coverage
Community health workers delivering primary health care: opportunities and challenges
EB144/14 – Universal health coverage
Preparation for the high-level meeting of the United Nations General Assembly on universal health coverage

EB144/17 – Medicines, vaccines and health products
Access to medicines and vaccines
EB144/18 – Medicines, vaccines and health products
Cancer medicines
EB144/19 – Follow-up to the high-level meetings of the United Nations General Assembly on health-related issues
Antimicrobial resistance

EB144/21 – Follow-up to the high-level meetings of the United Nations General Assembly on health-related issues
Ending tuberculosis

EB144/23 – Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework for the sharing of influenza viruses and access to vaccines and other benefits
Implementation of decision WHA71(11) (2018)

EB144/24 – Member State mechanism on substandard and falsified medical products

EB144/27 – Promoting the health of refugees and migrants
Draft global action plan, 2019–2023

 

::::::

::::::

 

Ebola – Democratic Republic of the Congo

Milestones :: Perspectives

Ebola – Democratic Republic of the Congo

24: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu  16 January 2019
[Excerpts]

  1. Situation update

As of 14 January 2019, a cumulative total of 402 deaths were reported, including 353 deaths among confirmed cases. The case fatality ratio among confirmed cases is 58% (353/609). Since 1 December 2018, 36% (72/202) of cases have occurred in children <15 years of age. Of these, 16 cases were <1 year of age. A total of 29 pregnant women have been reported so far. To date, 57 infected healthcare workers (including 20 deaths) have been reported, with an additional laboratory worker and a nurse identified retrospectively during the last reporting week. On 14 January 2019, one death among a healthcare worker occurred in Katwa Health Zone.

Case management

On 24 November 2018, MoH announced the launch of a randomized control trial for Ebola therapeutics. This first-ever multi-drug randomized control trial within an outbreak setting is an important step towards finding an effective evidence-based treatment for Ebola. The trial is coordinated by WHO and led and sponsored by the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s National Institute for Biomedical Research (INRB) which is the principal investigator. The trial has begun in the Alliance for International Medical Action (ALIMA) ETC in Beni, where patients are enrolled in the study after obtaining voluntary informed consent. MSF treatment centres are also preparing to launch the trial at their sites in the near future.

Until other ETCs are ready to launch the trial, they will continue to provide therapeutics under the Monitored Emergency Use of Unregistered Interventions (MEURI) (compassionate use) protocol, in collaboration with the MoH and the INRB, together with supportive care measures. WHO continues to provide technical clinical expertise on-site at all treatment centres. UNICEF is providing nutritional treatment and psychological support for all hospitalized patients…

…Implementation of ring vaccination protocol

As of 14 January 2019, a total of 60,460 individuals have been vaccinated since the start of the outbreak.

 

Emergencies

Emergencies

 

POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 16 January 2019
Summary of new viruses this week:
:: Nigeria – advance notification one case of circulating vaccine derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) and two circulating VDPV2 positive environmental samples.
:: Pakistan – two cases of wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) and five WPV1 positive environmental samples
 

::::::
::::::

 

Editor’s Note:

WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.
WHO Grade 3 Emergencies  [to 19 Jan 2019]
Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: 24: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu  16 January 2019
:: DONs Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo  17 January 2019

[See Milestones above for more detail]

 

Syrian Arab Republic
:: WHO statement on health situation in Rukban, Syria
17 January 2019, Damascus, Syria – The World Health Organization expresses severe concern about the deteriorating humanitarian conditions in Rukban settlement close to the border with Jordan, and calls for immediate access to the settlement to assess the health situation, provide essential medicines and medical supplies, and support the medical evacuation of critically ill patients.
Approximately 40 000 people, mostly women and children, remain stranded in the settlement and are unable to leave, and harsh winter conditions have reportedly led to several deaths. Health care facilities are barely functioning and have very few staff or medical supplies. There are no generators or fuel to provide even minimum warmth to alleviate the bitterly cold weather…

 

Bangladesh – Rohingya crisis – No new digest announcements identified
Myanmar – No new digest announcements identified
NigeriaNo new digest announcements identified
SomaliaNo new digest announcements identified
South SudanNo new digest announcements identified
YemenNo new digest announcements identified

 

::::::

 

WHO Grade 2 Emergencies  [to 19 Jan 2019]
occupied Palestinian territory – No new digest announcements identified
Brazil (in Portugese) – No new digest announcements identified
Cameroon  – No new digest announcements identified
Central African Republic  – No new digest announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new digest announcements identified
Hurricane Irma and Maria in the Caribbean – No new digest announcements identified
Iraq – No new digest announcements identified
Libya – No new digest announcements identified
MERS-CoV – No new digest announcements identified
Niger – No new digest announcements identified
Sao Tome and Principe Necrotizing Cellulitis (2017) – No new digest announcements identified
Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Ukraine – No new digest announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new digest announcements identified

::::::

 

WHO Grade 1 Emergencies  [to 19 Jan 2019]
Afghanistan
Chad
Indonesia – Sulawesi earthquake 2018
Kenya
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Mali
Namibia – viral hepatitis
Peru
Philippines – Tyhpoon Mangkhut

Tanzania

 

::::::
::::::

 

UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Yemen
:: Yemen Humanitarian Update Covering 13 December 2018 – 15 January 2019 | Issue 1  Published on 15 Jan 2019

KEY ISSUES:

  • Humanitarian partners assisted about 1 million people displaced by conflict in Al Hudaydah Governorate in the last six months. Partners are preparing to assist about 342,000 people who are projected to return to Al Hudaydah City if the situation improves.
  • The assisted displaced people include 127,644 in Hajjah Governorate where about 140,000 displaced people have been registered since June 2018.
  • The Central Emergency Response Fund made US$32 million available to support critical services for the scaleup of the life-saving humanitarian responses in Yemen.

Syrian Arab Republic   – No new digest announcements identified

::::::

UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
Ethiopia  – No new digest announcements identified
Somalia  – No new digest announcements identified

::::::

“Other Emergencies”
Indonesia: Central Sulawesi Earthquake – No new digest announcements identified
 

::::::
:::::: 

Editor’s Note:
We will cluster these recent emergencies as below and continue to monitor the WHO webpages for updates and key developments.
EBOLA/EVD  [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.who.int/ebola/en/
:: 24: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu  16 January 2019
:: DONs Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo  17 January 2019

[See Milestones above for more detail]

MERS-CoV [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://who.int/emergencies/mers-cov/en/
– No new digest announcements identified.

Yellow Fever  [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.who.int/csr/disease/yellowfev/en/
9 January 2019
Yellow fever – Nigeria

Zika virus  [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.who.int/csr/disease/zika/en/
– No new digest announcements identified.

 

::::::

::::::

 

WHO & Regional Offices [to 19 Jan 2019]
WHO statement on reports of alleged misconduct
17 January 2019
Statement
[See Milestones above]

::::::

144th Session of the WHO Executive Board
24 January – 1 February 2019 Coordinated Universal Time
Geneva, Switzerland
[See selected agenda content in Milestones above]

::::::

Weekly Epidemiological Record, 18 January 2019, vol. 94, 03 (pp. 17–44)
:: Editorial
:: Application of social science in the response to Ebola, Équateur Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: Lessons learnt from Ebola virus disease surveillance in Équateur Province, May–July 2018
:: Preventing the international spread of Ebola virus by comprehensive, risk-informed measures at points of entry and compliance with the International Health Regulations (2005)
:: Risk communication, community engagement and social mobilization during the outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Équateur Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, in 2018
:: A package for monitoring operational indicators of the response to the outbreak of Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
::Operational readiness and preparedness for Ebola virus disease outbreak in countries neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo: progress, challenges and the way forward
:: Monthly report on dracunculiasis cases, January–November 2018

::::::

WHO Regional Offices
Selected Press Releases, Announcements
WHO African Region AFRO
:: Cabo Verde leads the way in ending new HIV infections in children in West and Central Africa
17 January 2019
:: UNAIDS, UNICEF and WHO urge countries in western and central Africa to step up the pace in the response to HIV for children and adolescents  16 January 2019
:: EVD – Rwanda conducts a Full Scale Simulation Exercise  14 January 2019
WHO Region of the Americas PAHO
– No new announcement identified

WHO South-East Asia Region SEARO
– No new announcement identified 

WHO European Region EURO
– No new announcement identified

WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region EMRO
:: Medical kits and supplies delivered to Diyala, Iraq  17 January 2019

WHO Western Pacific Region ::
:: WHO-recommended newborn care cuts life-threatening infections by two thirds
15 January 2019

 

Announcements

Announcements
 
 
BMGF – Gates Foundation  [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases
No new digest content identified.
 
 
Bill & Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute    [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://www.gatesmri.org/
The Bill & Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute is a non-profit biotech organization. Our mission is to develop products to fight malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrheal diseases—three major causes of mortality, poverty, and inequality in developing countries. The world has unprecedented scientific tools at its disposal; now is the time to use them to save the lives of the world’s poorest people
No new digest content identified.
 
 
CARB-X   [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://carb-x.org/
CARB-X is a non-profit public-private partnership dedicated to accelerating antibacterial research to tackle the global rising threat of drug-resistant bacteria.
No new digest content identified.
 
 
 
CEPI – Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations  [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://cepi.net/
17 Jan 2019
CEPI partners with University of Queensland to create rapid-response vaccines
The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) and the University of Queensland (UQ)—one of the country’s leading research institutions—have announced a partnering agreement, worth up to US$ 10.6 million (AU$ 14.7 million), to develop a “molecular clamp” vaccine platform, a transformative technology that enables targeted and rapid vaccine production against multiple viral pathogens.
 
 
16 Jan 2019
CEPI backs expansion of FIND’s Lassa fever response programme
 
 
EDCTP    [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.edctp.org/
The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) aims to accelerate the development of new or improved drugs, vaccines, microbicides and diagnostics against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as well as other poverty-related and neglected infectious diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on phase II and III clinical trials
Latest news
No new digest content identified.
 
 
 
Emory Vaccine Center    [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.vaccines.emory.edu/
No new digest content identified.
 
 
European Medicines Agency  [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/
News and press releases
14/01/2019
News: Revised guideline aims to strengthen global approach to development of new antibacterial medicines
 
 
 
European Vaccine Initiative  [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.euvaccine.eu/news-events
15 January 2019
First clinical results of PlacMalVac project published
EVI-supported project publishes first clinical results for vaccine candidate to prevent pregnancy-associated malaria.
 
 
FDA [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/default.htm
January 15, 2019 –
Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D. and Peter Marks, M.D., Ph.D., Director of the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research on new policies to advance development of safe and effective cell and gene therapies
The FDA is witnessing a surge of cell and gene therapy products entering early development, evidenced by a large upswing in the number of investigational new drug (IND) applications. Based on this activity, we anticipate that the number of product approvals for cell and gene therapies will grow in the coming years, reflecting significant scientific advancement and the clinical promise of these new innovations…
 
 
Fondation Merieux  [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.fondation-merieux.org/
No new digest content identified.
 
 
Gavi [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://www.gavi.org/
15 January 2019
Iceland pledges US$1 million to immunise children in Malawi
 
 
GHIT Fund   [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://www.ghitfund.org/newsroom/press
GHIT was set up in 2012 with the aim of developing new tools to tackle infectious diseases that devastate the world’s poorest people. Other funders include six Japanese pharmaceutical
No new digest content identified.
 
 
Global Fund  [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://www.theglobalfund.org/en/news/
No new digest content identified.
 
 
Hilleman Laboratories   [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.hillemanlabs.org/
Date: 18/01/2019
Hilleman Laboratories announces creation of new Strategic Advisory Committee
 
 
Human Vaccines Project   [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.humanvaccinesproject.org/media/press-releases/
No new digest content identified.
 
 
IAVI  [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://www.iavi.org/newsroom
No new digest content identified.
 
 
IFFIm
http://www.iffim.org/library/news/press-releases/
No new digest content identified.
 
 
IVAC  [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/ivac/index.html
No new digest content identified.
 
 
IVI   [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.ivi.int/
IVI News & Announcements
No new digest content identified.
 
 
JEE Alliance  [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://www.jeealliance.org/
14.11.2018
The Alliance adopts a workplan with a focus on thematic dialogues and information sharing
Meeting, Multisectorality, OneHealth
 
 
MSF/Médecins Sans Frontières  [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.msf.org/
Selected News; Project Updates, Reports
DRC 2018 Ebola outbreaks
Ebola patient care increases amid growing tensions in North Kivu
18 Jan 2019

Neglected diseases
Lassa fever: A challenging disease to diagnose and treat
18 Jan 2019

Antibiotic resistance
“Without urgent action, common infections and minor injuries could be deadly again”
17 Jan 2019

Nigeria
Thousands fleeing Rann attack seek refuge in Cameroon
16 Jan 2019

Nigeria
Crisis update: Borno and Yobe states, January 2019
14 Jan 2019

 
NIH  [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases
No new digest content identified.

 
PATH  [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://www.path.org/media-center/
Jan. 15, 2019
Vietnam-produced seasonal influenza vaccine licensed for production and use
Milestone represents more than 10 years of partnership between Vietnamese manufacturers, PATH, the United States and Vietnam governments, and the World Health Organization.

Sabin Vaccine Institute  [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.sabin.org/updates/pressreleases
No new digest content identified.
 
 
UNAIDS [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.unaids.org/en
Selected Press Releases/Reports/Statements
17 January 2019
Oral fluid HIV testing for gay men and other men who have sex with men in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic

 

UNICEF  [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://www.unicef.org/media/press-releases
Selected Press Releases/Reports/Statements

Statement
18/01/2019
UNICEF Executive Director Henrietta Fore’s remarks at Rotary International Assembly, San Diego, California,

Statement
“Lack of access to medical care in Syria is putting children’s lives at risk”
Statement attributable to Geert Cappelaere, UNICEF Regional Director for the Middle East and North Africa

Vaccine Confidence Project  [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.vaccineconfidence.org/
Confidence Commentary:
Japan: ‘Distressing’ Trend – Cervical Cancer Increasing
Heidi Larson | 14 Jan, 2019
Cervical cancer is on the rise among young women in Japan. This contrasts with the trend seen in most other developed countries, where rates have been falling, largely as a result of screening and vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) — the chief cause of virtually all cervical cancers worldwide.
The recent increase in cervical cancer in Japan can probably be explained by several factors, say researchers: low levels of cervical cancer screening, changes in sexual behavior leading to an increase in the prevalence of HPV infection, and the suspension in June 2013 of an active recommendation of HPV vaccination.

Vaccine Education Center – Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia  [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.chop.edu/centers-programs/vaccine-education-center
No new digest content identified.

 

 
Wellcome Trust  [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://wellcome.ac.uk/news
News | 17 January 2019
Researchers can now transfer Wellcome grants outside the UK
Alyson Fox, our Director of Grants, explains why we’re changing our policy on transferring grants to ensure research can thrive in the UK, EU and beyond.

News | 14 January 2019
2018 was a flagship year for Innovations – and 2019 is equally promising
Director of Innovation Stephen Caddick reflects on the past year and explains how his team has built its global portfolio to around £1 billion, touching the lives of more than 1.8 million people.
 
 
The Wistar Institute   [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://www.wistar.org/news/press-releases
No new digest content identified.

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)   [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.oie.int/en/for-the-media/press-releases/2018/
No new digest content identified.

 

::::::

 

BIO    [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://www.bio.org/insights/press-release
Jan 17 2019
BIO Statement on China Approvals of Agricultural Biotechnology Products
Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO) President and CEO Jim Greenwood issued the following statement on the announcement that the People’s Republic of China’s National Biosafety Committee approved the final safety certificate for five agricultural biotechnology products.

 

DCVMN – Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturers Network  [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.dcvmn.org/
No new digest content identified.

  

IFPMA   [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.ifpma.org/resources/news-releases/
No new digest content identified.

PhRMA    [to 19 Jan 2019]
http://www.phrma.org/press-room
January 17, 2019
PhRMA Welcomes Genentech and Gilead Sciences to Association
 

Journal Watch

Journal Watch

   Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review continues its weekly scanning of key peer-reviewed journals to identify and cite articles, commentary and editorials, books reviews and other content supporting our focus on vaccine ethics and policy. Journal Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues the Center is actively tracking. We selectively provide full text of some editorial and comment articles that are specifically relevant to our work. Successful access to some of the links provided may require subscription or other access arrangement unique to the publisher.

If you would like to suggest other journal titles to include in this service, please contact David Curry at: david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org

 

 

 

 

 

Achieving the end game: employing “vaccine diplomacy” to eradicate polio in Pakistan

BMC Public Health
http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles
(Accessed 19 Jan 2019)

Correspondence
Achieving the end game: employing “vaccine diplomacy” to eradicate polio in Pakistan
On April 28, 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared polio a “Public Health Emergency of International Concern” (PHIC) under the authority of the International Health Regulations. Although polio has…
Authors: Shahella Idrees Shakeel, Matthew Brown, Shakeel Sethi and Tim K. Mackey
Citation: BMC Public Health 2019 19:79
Published on: 17 January 2019

Is partnership the answer? Delivering the national immunisation programme in the new English health system: a mixed methods study

BMC Public Health
http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles
(Accessed 19 Jan 2019)

Research article
Is partnership the answer? Delivering the national immunisation programme in the new English health system: a mixed methods study
The English national health system experienced a major reorganisation in April 2013. This mixed methods study examined how staff managed to deliver the national immunisation programme within a new health infra…
Authors: Tracey Chantler, Sadie Bell, Vanessa Saliba, Catherine Heffernan, Thara Raj, Mary Ramsay and Sandra Mounier-Jack
Citation: BMC Public Health 2019 19:83
Published on: 17 January 2019

Vaccination coverage in Lebanon following the Syrian crisis: results from the district-based immunization coverage evaluation survey 2016

BMC Public Health
http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles
(Accessed 19 Jan 2019)

Research article
Vaccination coverage in Lebanon following the Syrian crisis: results from the district-based immunization coverage evaluation survey 2016
Following the Syrian crisis, a substantial influx of Syrian refugees into Lebanon posed new challenges to optimal vaccination coverage for all children residing in the country. In 2016, the district-based immu…
Authors: Ziad Mansour, Randa Hamadeh, Alissar Rady, M. Carolina Danovaro-Holliday, Kamal Fahmy, Racha Said, Lina Brandt, Ramy Warrak and Walid Ammar
Citation: BMC Public Health 2019 19:58
Published on: 14 January 2019

Contemporary issues in north–south health research partnerships: perspectives of health research stakeholders in Zambia

Health Research Policy and Systems
http://www.health-policy-systems.com/content
[Accessed 19 Jan 2019]

Research
Contemporary issues in north–south health research partnerships: perspectives of health research stakeholders in Zambia
The late 1990s and early 2000s have seen a growth in north–south health research partnerships resulting from scientific developments such as those in genetic studies and development of statistical techniques a…
Authors: Tulani Francis L. Matenga, Joseph Mumba Zulu, J. Hope Corbin and Oliver Mweemba
Citation: Health Research Policy and Systems 2019 17:7
Published on: 15 January 2019

Novel methods of qualitative analysis for health policy research

Health Research Policy and Systems
http://www.health-policy-systems.com/content
[Accessed 19 Jan 2019]

Research
Novel methods of qualitative analysis for health policy research
Currently, thanks to the growing number of public database resources, most evidence on planning and management, healthcare institutions, policies and practices is becoming available to everyone. However, one o…
Authors: Mireya Martínez-García, Maite Vallejo, Enrique Hernández-Lemus and Jorge Alberto Álvarez-Díaz
Citation: Health Research Policy and Systems 2019 17:6
Published on: 14 January 2019

 

 

Trolley Dilemmas Fail to Predict Ethical Judgment in a Hypothetical Vaccination Context

Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics
Volume 14 Issue 1, February 2019
http://journals.sagepub.com/toc/jre/current

Research Participants’ Perspectives on Ethical Issues
Trolley Dilemmas Fail to Predict Ethical Judgment in a Hypothetical Vaccination Context
Fredrik Andreas Dahl, Gry Oftedal
First Published November 1, 2018; pp. 23–32
Preview
We investigated whether the responses of 68 ethics committee members and staff to trolley dilemmas could predict their responses to research ethics problems concerning vaccine trials. Trolley dilemmas deal with the issue of sacrificing some for the benefit of many, which is also a core issue in the vaccination trial dilemmas. The subjects’ responses to trolley dilemmas showed no statistically significant correlation with their responses to our vaccination trial dilemmas. We concluded that, if there is a component of transferable intuition between the contexts, it must be small and dominated by other factors. Furthermore, the willingness to sacrifice some for many was larger in the trolley context, despite a more favorable risk/reward ratio and the voluntary participation of the subjects at risk in the vaccination situations. We conclude that one’s general willingness to trade lives in the trolley context may be an artifact that is due to its unrealistic setting.

Trolley Dilemmas Fail to Predict Ethical Judgment in a Hypothetical Vaccination Context

Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics
Volume 14 Issue 1, February 2019
http://journals.sagepub.com/toc/jre/current

Research Participants’ Perspectives on Ethical Issues
Trolley Dilemmas Fail to Predict Ethical Judgment in a Hypothetical Vaccination Context
Fredrik Andreas Dahl, Gry Oftedal
First Published November 1, 2018; pp. 23–32
Preview
We investigated whether the responses of 68 ethics committee members and staff to trolley dilemmas could predict their responses to research ethics problems concerning vaccine trials. Trolley dilemmas deal with the issue of sacrificing some for the benefit of many, which is also a core issue in the vaccination trial dilemmas. The subjects’ responses to trolley dilemmas showed no statistically significant correlation with their responses to our vaccination trial dilemmas. We concluded that, if there is a component of transferable intuition between the contexts, it must be small and dominated by other factors. Furthermore, the willingness to sacrifice some for many was larger in the trolley context, despite a more favorable risk/reward ratio and the voluntary participation of the subjects at risk in the vaccination situations. We conclude that one’s general willingness to trade lives in the trolley context may be an artifact that is due to its unrealistic setting.

Privacy of Clinical Research Subjects: An Integrative Literature Review

Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics
Volume 14 Issue 1, February 2019
http://journals.sagepub.com/toc/jre/current

Privacy of Clinical Research Subjects: An Integrative Literature Review
Sanna-Maria Nurmi, Mari Kangasniemi, Arja Halkoaho, Anna-Maija Pietilä
First Published October 24, 2018; pp. 33–48
Preview
With changes in clinical research practice, the importance of a study-subject’s privacy and the confidentiality of their personal data is growing. However, the body of research is fragmented, and a synthesis of work in this area is lacking. Accordingly, an integrative review was performed, guided by Whittemore and Knafl’s work. Data from PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL searches from January 2012 to February 2017 were analyzed via the constant comparison method. From 16 empirical and theoretical studies, six topical aspects were identified: the evolving nature of health data in clinical research, sharing of health data, the challenges of anonymizing data, collaboration among stakeholders, the complexity of regulation, and ethics-related tension between social benefits and privacy. Study subjects’ privacy is an increasingly important ethics principle for clinical research, and privacy protection is rendered even more challenging by changing research practice.

Genomic Literacy and Awareness of Ethical Guidance for Genomic Research in Sub-Saharan Africa: How Prepared Are Biomedical Researchers?

Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics
Volume 14 Issue 1, February 2019
http://journals.sagepub.com/toc/jre/current

Genomic Literacy and Awareness of Ethical Guidance for Genomic Research in Sub-Saharan Africa: How Prepared Are Biomedical Researchers?
Olubunmi Ogunrin, Funmilola Taiwo, Lucy Frith
First Published October 25, 2018; pp. 78–87
Preview
Achieving the objectives of rolling out genomic research programs in sub-Saharan Africa depends on how prepared indigenous biomedical researchers are for this type of research. We explored the level of preparedness of biomedical researchers in a sub-Saharan African country using in-depth interviews to obtain data on their understanding of genomics and genomic research and assess their awareness of the scope of the country’s code of health research ethics. Thirty biomedical researchers were interviewed. Only eight were familiar with concepts of genomics, a form of “genomic health literacy.” The majority were not aware of the country’s code of research ethics. This study showed that generally biomedical researchers were not genomic health literate, unaware of the code and its limitations as a source of ethical guidance for the conduct of genomic research. These findings underscore the need for educational training in genomics and creating awareness of ethical oversight for genomic research in sub-Saharan Africa.

 

Evaluation of Hepatitis B Virus Screening, Vaccination, and Linkage to Care Among Newly Arrived Refugees in Four States, 2009–2011

Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
February 2019, Issue 1, Pages 1-209
https://link.springer.com/journal/10903/21/1

Original Paper
Evaluation of Hepatitis B Virus Screening, Vaccination, and Linkage to Care Among Newly Arrived Refugees in Four States, 2009–2011
Kiren Mitruka, Clelia Pezzi, Brittney Baack

The Imperative for Climate Action to Protect Health

New England Journal of Medicine
January 17, 2019  Vol. 380 No. 3
http://www.nejm.org/toc/nejm/medical-journal

Review Article
The Imperative for Climate Action to Protect Health
Andy Haines, M.D., and Kristie Ebi, M.P.H., Ph.D.
The WHO predicts that 250,000 deaths yearly from 2030 to 2050 will be attributable to climate change. Reductions in greenhouse-gas emissions would be expected to have substantial health benefits — for example, reduced air pollution could lead to a lower risk of noncommunicable disease.

 

Chikungunya as a paradigm for emerging viral diseases: Evaluating disease impact and hurdles to vaccine development

PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
http://www.plosntds.org/
(Accessed 19 Jan 2019)

Review
Chikungunya as a paradigm for emerging viral diseases: Evaluating disease impact and hurdles to vaccine development
Giovanni Rezza, Scott C. Weaver
| published 17 Jan 2019 PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006919
Abstract
Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is an emerging infectious disease caused by an alphavirus transmitted by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Because mosquito control programs are not highly efficient for outbreak containment, vaccines are essential to reduce the burden of disease. Although no licensed vaccine against CHIKF is yet available, many highly promising candidates are undergoing preclinical studies, and a few of them have been tested in human trials of phase 1 or 2. Here, we review recent findings regarding the need for a CHIKF vaccine and provide an update on vaccines nearing or having entered clinical trials. We also address needs to tackle bottlenecks to vaccine development—including scientific and financial barriers—and to accelerate the development of vaccines; several actions should be taken: (i) design efficacy trials to be conducted during the course of outbreaks; (ii) evaluate the opportunity for adopting the “animal rule”for demonstration of efficacy for regulatory purposes; (iii) strengthen the collective commitment of nations, international organizations, potential donors and industry; (iv) stimulate public and/or private partnerships to invest in vaccine development and licensure; and (v) identify potential markets for an effective and safe CHIKF vaccine.

Demonstration of background rates of three conditions of interest for vaccine safety surveillance

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 19 Jan 2019]

Research Article
Demonstration of background rates of three conditions of interest for vaccine safety surveillance
Anne E. Wormsbecker, Caitlin Johnson, Laura Bourns, Tara Harris, Natasha S. Crowcroft, Shelley L. Deeks
Research Article | published 15 Jan 2019 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210833

 

Retention of adults from fishing communities in an HIV vaccine preparedness study in Masaka, Uganda

PLoS One
http://www.plosone.org/
[Accessed 19 Jan 2019]

Retention of adults from fishing communities in an HIV vaccine preparedness study in Masaka, Uganda
Ubaldo Mushabe Bahemuka, Andrew Abaasa, Eugene Ruzagira, Christina Lindan, Matt A. Price, Anatoli Kamali, Pat Fast
Research Article | published 14 Jan 2019 PLOS ONE
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0198460

Why we need fetal tissue research

Science         
18 January 2019  Vol 363, Issue 6424
http://www.sciencemag.org/current.dtl

Editorial
Why we need fetal tissue research
By Sally Temple, Lawrence S. B. Goldstein
Science18 Jan 2019 : 20
Summary
A vocal minority in the United States is intent on stopping federal funding for research using human fetal tissue, citing stem cell–based or other alternatives as adequate. This view is scientifically inaccurate. It ignores the current limitations of stem cell research and disregards the value of fetal tissue research in finding therapies for incurable diseases. If there is to be continued rapid progress in treating cancer, birth defects, heart disease, and infectious diseases, then we need fetal tissue research.

Vaccine acceptance: Science, policy, and practice in a ‘post-fact’ world

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 5  Pages 677-762 (29 January 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/4

Conference report
Vaccine acceptance: Science, policy, and practice in a ‘post-fact’ world
Katie Attwell, Eve Dube, Arnaud Gagneur, Saad B. Omer, … Angus Thomson
Pages 677-682
Abstract
Suboptimal vaccination uptake may be associated with outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases in many parts of the world. Researchers and practitioners working on improving vaccine acceptance and uptake gathered together for the fifth annual meeting on vaccine acceptance, organized by the Fondation Mérieux at its conference centre in Veyrier-du-Lac, France, to share their experiences in building, improving and sustaining vaccine confidence and uptake. The importance and value of truly listening to people and seeking to understand the perspectives of vaccine hesitant people was emphasized throughout the meeting. The benefits of social marketing, which can be used to influence behavior that benefit individuals and communities for the greater social good, and its integration into strategies aimed at improving vaccine acceptance and uptake, were discussed. Healthcare professionals (HCPs) need tools and training to help them engage effectively in vaccination acceptance conversations with parents and other patients. Two potential tools, motivational interviewing (MI) and AIMS (Announce, Inquire, Mirror, Secure), were presented. Examples of MI approaches that have successfully improved vaccination acceptance and uptake included a project in Canada aimed at parents just after the birth of their baby. The role of mandates to increase vaccination uptake in the short-term was discussed, but to achieve sustainable vaccination uptake this must be complemented with other strategies. These annual meetings have led to the creation of an informal community of practice that facilitates cross-pollination between the various disciplines and different settings of those involved in this area of research and implementation. It was agreed that we must continue our efforts to promote vaccine acceptance and thus increase vaccination uptake, by fostering more effective vaccination communication, monitoring of the media conversation on vaccination, designing and rigorously evaluating targeted interventions, and surveillance of vaccine acceptance and uptake with pertinent, reliable measures.

The views of key stakeholders around mandatory influenza vaccination of hospital and aged care staff: Examining the current climate in Australia

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 5  Pages 677-762 (29 January 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/4

Research article  Abstract only
The views of key stakeholders around mandatory influenza vaccination of hospital and aged care staff: Examining the current climate in Australia
Alexis Moran, Maria Agaliotis, Holly Seale
Pages 705-710

Exploring California’s new law eliminating personal belief exemptions to childhood vaccines and vaccine decision-making among homeschooling mothers in California

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 5  Pages 677-762 (29 January 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/4

Research article  Abstract only
Exploring California’s new law eliminating personal belief exemptions to childhood vaccines and vaccine decision-making among homeschooling mothers in California
Pamela McDonald, Rupali J. Limaye, Saad B. Omer, Alison M. Buttenheim, … Daniel A. Salmon
Pages 742-750

First case in China of vaccine-associated poliomyelitis after sequential Inactivated and bivalent oral polio vaccination

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 5  Pages 677-762 (29 January 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/4

Research article  Abstract only
First case in China of vaccine-associated poliomyelitis after sequential Inactivated and bivalent oral polio vaccination
Xiangdong Peng, Xiaojiang Hu, Miguel A. Salazar
Pages 751-754

 

Measles at Work: Status of Measles Vaccination at a Multinational Company

Vaccines — Open Access Journal
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines
(Accessed 19 Jan 2019)

Open Access  Communication
Measles at Work: Status of Measles Vaccination at a Multinational Company
by Nora Moussli, Emmanuel Kabengele and Emilien Jeannot
Vaccines 2019, 7(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7010008 – 16 January 2019
Abstract
Background: This study aims to evaluate the status of measles vaccination among employees working for a multinational company. It also assesses the effectiveness of an on-site prevention campaign. In keeping with the guidelines of the World Health Organization regarding measles awareness, the Federal Office of Public Health in Switzerland aims to eliminate measles by 2020.
Methods: A questionnaire about measles vaccination was sent by e-mail and via a fluid survey. Logistic regression models examined the associations between explicative variables and the status of complete measles immunization. The status of complete measles immunization was used as the primary outcome.
Results: 17% of the participants were not aware of their measles immunization status, 14% had had only one dose of the vaccination, and only 24% had two doses. Male employees had a lower probability of being vaccinated against measles than women [aOR=0.62; 95% CI: 0.43–0.86]. Employees of Swiss and African ori1gin had a higher probability of being vaccinated than employees of European origin (aOR=.94; 95% CI: 1.13–3.33).
Conclusions: Based on the results of the questionnaire, further efforts are needed to promote measles vaccination through awareness campaigns so that employees become more aware of the importance of measles immunization

Integration of Neonatal and Child Health Interventions with Pediatric HIV Interventions in Global Health

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

International Journal of MCH and AIDS
2018; 7(1): 192–206.
Integration of Neonatal and Child Health Interventions with Pediatric HIV Interventions in Global Health
BL Smith, S Zizzo, A Amzel, S Wiant, MC Pezzulo… –
In the last decade, many strategies have called for integration of HIV and child survival platforms to reduce missed opportunities and improve child health outcomes. Countries with generalized HIV epidemics have been encouraged to optimize each clinical encounter to bend the HIV epidemic curve. This systematic review looks at integrated child health services and summarizes evidence on their health outcomes, service uptake, acceptability, and identified enablers and barriers.

Media/Policy Watch

Media/Policy Watch

This watch section is intended to alert readers to substantive news, analysis and opinion from the general media and selected think tanks and similar organizations on vaccines, immunization, global public health and related themes. Media Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues CVEP is actively tracking. This section will grow from an initial base of newspapers, magazines and blog sources, and is segregated from Journal Watch above which scans the peer-reviewed journal ecology.

We acknowledge the Western/Northern bias in this initial selection of titles and invite suggestions for expanded coverage. We are conservative in our outlook in adding news sources which largely report on primary content we are already covering above. Many electronic media sources have tiered, fee-based subscription models for access. We will provide full-text where content is published without restriction, but most publications require registration and some subscription level.

The Atlantic
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

BBC
http://www.bbc.co.uk/
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]
 
 
The Economist
http://www.economist.com/
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]
 
 
Financial Times
http://www.ft.com/home/uk
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]
 
 
Forbes
http://www.forbes.com/
Accessed 19 Jan 2019

PublicHealth
Jan 16, 2019,
What Andy Samberg And Sandra Oh Got Right At The Golden Globes: Vaccines Are Worth Celebrating
Bill Frist, Contributor
Last week at the Golden Globes, hosts Andy Samberg and Sandra Oh made headlines as they tried to give out free flu shots to celebrities in the audience. This surprise stunt showed famous stars looking shocked and nervous as needle-wielding nurses descended from the stage to offer vaccinations. Samberg joked, “If you are an anti-vaxxer, just put a napkin on—perhaps over—your head and we will skip you.”
This segment certainly got laughs, but perhaps more importantly it got the flu vaccine—and vaccinations in general—back into public discourse…
 
 
Foreign Affairs
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]
 
 
Foreign Policy
http://foreignpolicy.com/
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
Ebola Has Gotten So Bad, It’s Normal
Africa isn’t just dealing with an outbreak anymore—and that’s bad news for everyone.
Laurie Garrett  January 15, 2019,
Nearly 600 people have contracted Ebola since last August in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, making the ongoing outbreak the second largest in the 43-year history of humanity’s battle with the deadly virus. And there is a genuine threat that this Congo health crisis—the 10th the African nation has faced—could become essentially permanent in the war-torn region bordering South Sudan, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi, making a terrible transition from being epidemic to endemic.
Despite having a tool kit at its disposal that is unrivaled—including a vaccine, new diagnostics, experimental treatments, and a strong body of knowledge regarding how to battle the hemorrhage-causing virus—the small army of international health responders and humanitarian workers in Congo is playing whack-a-mole against a microbe that keeps popping up unexpectedly and proving impossible to control. This is not because of any special attributes of the classic strain of Ebola—the same genetic strain that has been successfully tackled many times before—but because of humans and their behaviors in a quarter-century-old war zone…
 
 
The Guardian
http://www.guardiannews.com/
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]
 
 
New Yorker
http://www.newyorker.com/
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]
 
 
New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
Jan. 14
New York Confronts Its Worst Measles Outbreak in Decades
The disease spread within ultra-Orthodox Jewish communities where vaccination rates are low and some are suspicious of government health workers.

Jan. 14
China Investigates Latest Vaccine Scandal After Violent Protests
   The inquiry comes after hundreds of Chinese parents demonstrated outside a local government office, angered that their children had received expired polio vaccines.
 
 
Wall Street Journal
http://online.wsj.com/home-page?_wsjregion=na,us&_homepage=/home/us
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]
 
 
Washington Post
http://www.washingtonpost.com/
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
Rep.-elect Mark Green walks back claim that vaccines cause autism
By Felicia Sonmez
December 12, 2018
Rep.-elect Mark Green (R-Tenn.) is walking back comments at a town hall in which he promoted the conspiracy theory that vaccines cause autism and said that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention may have “fraudulently managed” data on the topic.

Green, a physician who last month won the House seat being vacated by Rep. Marsha Blackburn (R-Tenn.), made the remarks Tuesday night in response to a question from a town hall attendee.

“Let me say this about autism,” Green said, according to a video of the exchange posted by the Tennessean. “I have committed to people in my community, up in Montgomery County, to stand on the CDC’s desk and get the real data on vaccines, because there is some concern that the rise in autism is the result of the preservatives that are in our vaccines.”

He added that, as a doctor, he could approach the issue “academically” and make his case against the CDC “if they really want to engage me on it.”

“But it appears that some of that data has been, honestly, maybe fraudulently managed,” he said.

In a statement Wednesday night, Green said that his comments about vaccines had been “misconstrued.”

“I want to reiterate my wife and I vaccinated our children, and we believe, and advise others they should have their children vaccinated,” he said…

Think Tanks et al

Think Tanks et al

Brookings
http://www.brookings.edu/
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
[No new relevant content]

Center for Global Development  
http://www.cgdev.org/page/press-center
[No new relevant content]

CSIS
https://www.csis.org/
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
[No new relevant content]

Council on Foreign Relations
http://www.cfr.org/
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
January 7, 2019
Public Health Threats and Pandemics
The Ebola Virus
Endemic to the African tropics, the Ebola virus has killed thousands in recent years, putting the World Health Organization and major donor countries in the limelight as they’ve grappled with how to respond to outbreaks.
Backgrounder by Claire Felter and Danielle Renwick
 

Kaiser Family Foundation
https://www.kff.org/search/?post_type=press-release
Accessed 19 Jan 2019
January 18, 2019 News Release
Ebola Spreads amid Violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and U.S. Role Remains Limited
A new KFF issue brief examines the international and U.S. response to the ongoing Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo, now the second largest ever recorded, as authorities struggle to contain the virus’ spread amid violence in an active combat zone.
Conflict in the Ebola-affected region has impeded the response from the start, but conditions worsened following the DRC’s contested national elections in December. The brief notes the limited U.S. role with restricted deployment of key personnel due to safety concerns.

World Economic Forum    [to 19 Jan 2019]
https://agenda.weforum.org/news/
Selected News Releases
 Risks to Global Businesses from New Era of Epidemics Rival Climate Change
News 18 Jan 2019

  • The number and kind of infectious disease outbreaks have increased significantly over the past 30 years
  • Since 2011, the world has seen nearly 200 epidemic events per year
  • Pandemics will be the cause of average annual economic losses of 0.7% of global GDP – or $570 billion – a threat similar in scale to that estimated for climate change in the coming decades
  • Companies operating globally can take action to mitigate threats posed by epidemics
  • Read the full report and view data visualization of corporate risk here

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review :: 12 January 2019

.– Request an Email Summary: Vaccines and Global Health : The Week in Review is published as a single email summary, scheduled for release each Saturday evening before midnight (EDT in the U.S.). If you would like to receive the email version, please send your request to david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org.

 pdf version A pdf of the current issue is available here: vaccines and global health_the week in review_12 jan 2019

– blog edition: comprised of the approx. 35+ entries posted below.

– Twitter:  Readers can also follow developments on twitter: @vaxethicspolicy.
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– Links:  We endeavor to test each link as we incorporate it into any post, but recognize that some links may become “stale” as publications and websites reorganize content over time. We apologize in advance for any links that may not be operative. We believe the contextual information in a given post should allow retrieval, but please contact us as above for assistance if necessary.

Support this knowledge-sharing service: Your financial support helps us cover our costs and to address a current shortfall in our annual operating budget. Click here to donate and thank you in advance for your contribution.

.
David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

Global Fund Announces US$14 Billion Target to Step Up the Fight Against AIDS, TB and Malaria Ahead of Lyon Conference in October 2019

Milestones :: Perspectives

Global Fund Announces US$14 Billion Target to Step Up the Fight Against AIDS, TB and Malaria Ahead of Lyon Conference in October 2019

11 January 2019

PARIS – The Global Fund today announced its fundraising target for the next three-year cycle, outlining how a minimum of US$14 billion will help save 16 million lives, cut the mortality rate from HIV, TB and malaria in half, and build stronger health systems by 2023. The summary of the Sixth Replenishment Investment Case describes what can be achieved by a fully funded Global Fund, the new threats facing global health progress today, and the risks if we don’t step up the fight now.

French President Emmanuel Macron expressed his strong support for the Global Fund’s replenishment target today. Joined in Paris by Global Fund Executive Director Peter Sands, World Health Organization Director-General Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, and French Minister of Solidarity and Health Agnes Buzyn, President Macron stressed the need for global collaboration to end the epidemics. France is a founding member of the Global Fund and will host the Global Fund’s Sixth Replenishment Conference in Lyon on 10 October 2019.

“We must relaunch efforts to fight health inequalities at the international level,” said President Macron. “We are hosting the Sixth Replenishment Conference of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in Lyon in 2019. We will step up our action to tackle the major pandemics. I call on everyone here to mobilize.”…

The full Global Fund Sixth Replenishment Investment Case will be presented and discussed by global health leaders at the Preparatory Meeting of the Global Fund Sixth Replenishment, hosted by the government of India in New Delhi on 8 February 2019.

Sixth Replenishment Investment Case [Summary – PDF]

144th Session of the WHO Executive Board

Milestones :: Perspectives

144th Session of the WHO Executive Board

24 January – 1 February 2019 Coordinated Universal Time

Geneva, Switzerland

Selected Agenda Content

EB144/1 – Provisional agenda
EB144/1 (annotated) – Provisional agenda (annotated)

EB144/8 – Public health preparedness and response
Report of the Independent Oversight and Advisory Committee for the WHO Health Emergencies Programme

EB144/9 – Polio Eradication
EB144/10 – Polio Transition

EB144/11 Rev.1 – Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

EB144/12 – Universal health coverage
Primary health care towards universal health coverage
EB144/13 – Universal health coverage
Community health workers delivering primary health care: opportunities and challenges
EB144/14 – Universal health coverage
Preparation for the high-level meeting of the United Nations General Assembly on universal health coverage

EB144/17 – Medicines, vaccines and health products
Access to medicines and vaccines
EB144/18 – Medicines, vaccines and health products
Cancer medicines
EB144/19 – Follow-up to the high-level meetings of the United Nations General Assembly on health-related issues
Antimicrobial resistance

EB144/21 – Follow-up to the high-level meetings of the United Nations General Assembly on health-related issues
Ending tuberculosis

EB144/23 – Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework for the sharing of influenza viruses and access to vaccines and other benefits
Implementation of decision WHA71(11) (2018)

EB144/24 – Member State mechanism on substandard and falsified medical products

EB144/27 – Promoting the health of refugees and migrants
Draft global action plan, 2019–2023

 

Ebola – Democratic Republic of the Congo

Milestones :: Perspectives

Ebola – Democratic Republic of the Congo

23: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu
8 January 2019 [Excerpts]
Case management
On 24 November 2018, MoH announced the launch of a randomized control trial for Ebola therapeutics. This first-ever multi-drug randomized control trial within an outbreak setting, is an important step towards finding an effective evidence-based treatment for Ebola. The trial is coordinated by WHO and led and sponsored by the Democratic Republic of the Congo’s National Institute for Biomedical Research (INRB) which is the principal investigator. The trial has begun in the Alliance for International Medical Action (ALIMA) ETC in Beni, where patients are enrolled in the study after obtaining voluntary informed consent. MSF treatment centres are also preparing to launch the trial at their sites in the near future.

Until other ETCs are ready to launch the trial, they will continue to provide therapeutics under the Monitored Emergency Use of Unregistered Interventions (MEURI) (compassionate use) protocol, in collaboration with the MoH and the INRB, together with supportive care measures. WHO continues to provide technical clinical expertise on-site at all treatment centres. UNICEF is providing nutritional treatment and psychological support for all hospitalized patients.

As of 6 January 2019, a total of 151 patients are hospitalized in ETCs, of which 29 are confirmed cases, receiving compassionate therapy.

As of 4 January 2019, Katwa ETC has been opened and admitted three suspected cases.

…Implementation of ring vaccination protocol
As of 6 January 2019, a total of 56,509 individuals have been vaccinated since the start of the outbreak.
 

::::::

DONs  Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo   10 January 2019   
[Excerpt]
…WHO risk assessment
Unchanged: “…risk of national and regional spread is very high”

::::::

::::::

Emergencies

Emergencies
 
 
POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 08 January 2019
:: During the four-day visit to polio endemic countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, WHO Director General, Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, reiterated WHO’s commitment to help endemic, outbreak and at-risk countries rid of poliovirus. Read the press release here.
:: In Mozambique, a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) outbreak is confirmed.
 
 
Summary of new viruses this week:
:: Afghanistan – two WPV1-positive environmental samples;
:: Pakistan – nine WPV1-positive environmental samples;
:: Mozambique – one new case of cVDPV2.
 
 
WHO DG calls for concerted efforts to end polio during his visit to Pakistan and Afghanistan
10/01/2019
Endemic countries, WHO and partners are committed to eradicate polio
For Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of WHO, the start to the new year was marked with a four-day visit to Afghanistan and Pakistan from 5-8 January. The visit came at the heels of his new role as the Chair of the Polio Oversight Board (POB) on 1 January, a committee which oversees and guides the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, signalling the Board’s utmost commitment towards eradication of polio for good.
Accompanied by WHO Regional Director for the Eastern Mediterranean Dr Ahmed Al-Mandhari, Dr Tedros’ well-knit, compact visit covered a lot of bases from field visits to high-level meetings with heads of state from both the countries, giving the POB an opportunity to see that while polio may still be in endemic in Afghanistan and Pakistan, but the process to achieve the goal of ending polio is not far from realization.
“We must all give our best on this last mile to eradicate polio once and for all. My wish for 2019 is for zero polio transmission. You have WHO’s full support to help reach every child and stop this virus for good,” Dr Tedros said…

::::::
::::::

 

Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.
 
 
WHO Grade 3 Emergencies  [to 12 Jan 2019]
Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: 23: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu  8 January 2019
:: DONs  Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo   10 January 2019
[See Milestones above for more detail]
 
 
Bangladesh – Rohingya crisis – No new announcements identified
Myanmar – No new announcements identified
Nigeria – No new announcements identified
Somalia – No new announcements identified
South Sudan – No new announcements identified
Syrian Arab Republic – No new announcements identified
Yemen – No new announcements identified
 
::::::
 
WHO Grade 2 Emergencies  [to 12 Jan 2019]
occupied Palestinian territory – No new announcements identified
Brazil (in Portugese) – No new announcements identified
Cameroon  – No new announcements identified
Central African Republic  – No new announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new announcements identified
Hurricane Irma and Maria in the Caribbean – No new announcements identified
Iraq – No new announcements identified
Libya – No new announcements identified
MERS-CoV – No new announcements identified
Niger – No new announcements identified
Sao Tome and Principe Necrotizing Cellulitis (2017) – No new announcements identified
Sudan – No new announcements identified
Ukraine – No new announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new announcements identified
 
::::::
 
WHO Grade 1 Emergencies  [to 12 Jan 2019]
Afghanistan
Chad
Indonesia – Sulawesi earthquake 2018
Kenya
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Mali
Namibia – viral hepatitis
Peru
Philippines – Tyhpoon Mangkhut
Tanzania

::::::
::::::

UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic   – No new announcements identified
Yemen – No new announcements identified

::::::

UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
Ethiopia  – No new announcements identified
Somalia  – No new announcements identified

::::::

“Other Emergencies”
Indonesia: Central Sulawesi Earthquake – No new announcements identified 

::::::
::::::

Editor’s Note:
We will cluster these recent emergencies as below and continue to monitor the WHO webpages for updates and key developments.

EBOLA/EVD  [to 12 Jan 2019]
http://www.who.int/ebola/en/
:: 23: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu  8 January 2019
:: DONs  Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo   10 January 2019
[See Milestones above for more detail]
 
 
MERS-CoV [to 12 Jan 2019]
http://who.int/emergencies/mers-cov/en/
No new announcements identified.
 
 
Yellow Fever  [to 12 Jan 2019]
http://www.who.int/csr/disease/yellowfev/en/
No new announcements identified.
 
 
Zika virus  [to 12 Jan 2019]
http://www.who.int/csr/disease/zika/en/
No new announcements identified.