Emergencies

Emergencies

 

POLIO
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC)
Polio this week as of 17 April 2019
:: Co-chairs of Immunization Management Group (IMG) announced that the global goal set out in 2013 of 126-OPV using countries to introduce 1 dose of IPV in their immunization programme has been achieved.
:: Eminent Islamic religious scholars from Afghanistan and Pakistan came together in Muscat, Oman for the first ever joint Ulama Conference, under the aegis of the Islamic Advisory Group (IAG). for polio eradication The IAG convened religious scholars in a bid to appreciate their value as community leaders and secure bilateral support for polio eradication efforts across the joint poliovirus transmission corridors. At the end of the two-day conference, the scholars issued a joint declaration in support of the polio efforts. Watch the Opening Session here. Read the declaration here.
:: In keeping with the recommendations of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (IHR), Afghanistan and Pakistan have introduced an all-age polio vaccination for travelers crossing international borders to increase general population immunity the common wild poliovirus transmission corridor. Read more.

Summary of new viruses this week:
:: Afghanistan—three wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1)-positive environmental samples;
:: Pakistan—three WPV1-positive environmental samples;
:: Nigeria—one circulating vaccine-derived type 2 (cVDPV2) case and seven cVDPV2-positive environmental samples.

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Joining hands across the border
All travellers crossing the border between Pakistan and Afghanistan are vaccinated against polio, regardless of age
GPEI  16/04/2019
On both sides of the historical 2640-kilometre-long border between Pakistan and Afghanistan, communities maintain close familial ties with each other. The constant year-round cross border movement makes for easy wild poliovirus transmission in the common epidemiological block.

As a new tactic in their joint efforts to defeat poliovirus circulation, Afghanistan and Pakistan have introduced all-age polio vaccination for travellers crossing the international borders in efforts to increase general population immunity against polio and to help stop the cross-border transmission of poliovirus. The official inauguration of the all-age vaccination effort took place on 25 March 2019 at the border crossings in Friendship Gate (Chaman-Spin Boldak) in the south, and in Torkham in the north…

…It is estimated that the Friendship Gate border alone receives a daily foot traffic of 30 000. Travellers include women and men of all ages, from children to the elderly.

Pakistan and Afghanistan first increased the age for polio vaccination at the border in January 2016, from children under five years to those up to 10 years old. The decision was in line with the recommendations of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (IHR) which declared the global spread of polio a “public health emergency of international concern”,

The all-age vaccination against polio at the border crossings serves a practical implementation of another recommendation of the IHR Committee: that Pakistan and Afghanistan should “further intensify cross­border efforts by significantly improving coordination at the national, regional and local levels to substantially increase vaccination coverage of travelers crossing the border and of high risk cross­border populations.

…As part of the newly introduced all-age vaccination, all people above 10 years of age who are given OPV at the border are issued a special card as proof of vaccination. The card remains valid for one year and exempts regular crossers from receiving the vaccination again. Children under 10 years of age will be vaccinated each time they cross the border.

Before all-age vaccination began at Friendship Gate and Torkham, public officials held extensive communication outreach both sides of the border to publicize the expansion of vaccination activities from children under 10 to all ages. Radio messages were played in regional languages, and community engagement sessions sensitized people who regularly travel across the border. Banners and posters were displayed at prominent locations….

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Editor’s Note:
WHO has posted a refreshed emergencies page which presents an updated listing of Grade 3,2,1 emergencies as below.

WHO Grade 3 Emergencies  [to 20 Apr 2019]
Bangladesh – Rohingya crisis
:: Bi‐weekly Situation Report 7 – 11 April 2019

HIGHLIGHTS
:: Ten new diphtheria cases were reported in week 14, (1 confirmed, 9 suspected), bringing the total number of reported case-patients to 8 545.
:: To gain an understanding of how women and men perceive immunization in camps, WHO organized two focus group discussions.
:: Water Quality Surveillance round 10 has been started in all refugee areas.

Varicella Update
A total of 2161 varicella cases were reported this week via weekly report form (2783 cases in week 13).
Risk Communication
WHO organized, two separate focus group discussions (FGDs), one for only women of all ages, and another of only men of all ages, held at the Camp 14 in Ukhiya of the Cox’s Bazar district. This was to gain an understanding of how women and men perceive immunization in the camps. The questions were kept open-ended to understand perception and attitude related to importance of Immunization, importance of Immunization schedule and compliance, gaps in communication with respect to immunization. Observations from these FGDs revealed that everyone in both the groups had heard about necessity of immunization but did not have clear reasons to believe or act. People opted for it because it is a free service and they trust health workers. Absence of knowledge about relevance of complying with the immunization schedule and dangers of missing out on any vaccine was identified.

Cyclone Idai
:: Cyclone-affected communities in Zimbabwe being vaccinated against cholera
Campaign targets nearly 500,000 people in Chimanimani and Chipinge
HARARE, Zimbabwe, 16 April 2019 – An oral cholera vaccine (OCV) campaign targeting some 487,825 people began Tuesday in Zimbabwe in the two districts most affected by cyclone Idai.
During the campaign all residents of Chimanimani and Chipinge districts aged 12 months and older will receive the vaccine to protect them against cholera.
While there have been no reported cases of cholera in the cyclone-affected areas in Zimbabwe, the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care is launching the campaign, with support from UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO), as a proactive, preventative measure.
Funded by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, more than 975 000 OCV doses will be administered in two rounds for full immunity. The second dose will be given approximately two weeks after the first…

Democratic Republic of the Congo
:: 37: Situation report on the Ebola outbreak in North Kivu  16 April 2019
:: Disease Outbreak News (DONs)Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
11 April 2019
[See Ebola above for detail]

Myanmar  – No new digest announcements identified
Nigeria – No new digest announcements identified
Somalia – No new digest announcements identified
South Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Syrian Arab Republic – No new digest announcements identified
Yemen  – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 2 Emergencies  [to 20 Apr 2019]
Brazil (in Portugese)
:: Últimas notícias – Cerca de 70 milhões de pessoas serão vacinadas durante a Semana de Vacinação nas Américas  18 de abril de 2019

Cameroon  – No new digest announcements identified
Iraq – No new digest announcements identified
Libya – No new digest announcements identified
occupied Palestinian territory  – No new digest announcements identified
Sudan – No new digest announcements identified
Central African Republic  – No new digest announcements identified
Ethiopia – No new digest announcements identified
MERS-CoV – No new digest announcements identified
Niger – No new digest announcements identified
Ukraine – No new digest announcements identified
Zimbabwe – No new digest announcements identified

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WHO Grade 1 Emergencies  [to 20 Apr 2019]
Afghanistan – No new digest announcements identified
Chad  – No new digest announcements identified
Indonesia – Sulawesi earthquake 2018  – No new digest announcements identified
Kenya   – No new digest announcements identified
Lao People’s Democratic Republic  – No new digest announcements identified
Mali  – No new digest announcements identified
Namibia – viral hepatitis  – No new digest announcements identified
Peru  – No new digest announcements identified
Philippines – Tyhpoon Mangkhut  – No new digest announcements identified
Tanzania  – No new digest announcements identified

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UN OCHA – L3 Emergencies
The UN and its humanitarian partners are currently responding to three ‘L3’ emergencies. This is the global humanitarian system’s classification for the response to the most severe, large-scale humanitarian crises. 
Syrian Arab Republic  
:: Syria: Humanitarian Response in Al Hol camp, Situation report No. 2
 
Yemen – No new digest announcements identified

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UN OCHA – Corporate Emergencies
When the USG/ERC declares a Corporate Emergency Response, all OCHA offices, branches and sections provide their full support to response activities both at HQ and in the field.
CYCLONE IDAI
:: 20 April 2019   Mozambique: Cyclone Idai & Floods Situation Report No. 16 (A …
:: 18 April 2019   Zimbabwe: Floods Situation Report No. 3, As of 17 April 2019