Announcements

Announcements

Paul G. Allen Frontiers Group [to 18 May 2019]
https://alleninstitute.org/what-we-do/frontiers-group/news-press/
No new digest content identified.

BMGF – Gates Foundation [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.gatesfoundation.org/Media-Center/Press-Releases
No new digest content identified.

Bill & Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute [to 18 May 2019]
https://www.gatesmri.org/
The Bill & Melinda Gates Medical Research Institute is a non-profit biotech organization. Our mission is to develop products to fight malaria, tuberculosis, and diarrheal diseases—three major causes of mortality, poverty, and inequality in developing countries. The world has unprecedented scientific tools at its disposal; now is the time to use them to save the lives of the world’s poorest people
No new digest content identified.

CARB-X [to 18 May 2019]
https://carb-x.org/
CARB-X is a non-profit public-private partnership dedicated to accelerating antibacterial research to tackle the global rising threat of drug-resistant bacteria.
05.14.2019
CARB-X funds Debiopharm to develop a new class of antibiotics to treat hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant superbug Acinetobacter baumannii
CARB-X is awarding Debiopharm International SA of Lausanne, Switzerland, up to $2.1 million in non-dilutive funding with the possibility of $1.6 million more if certain project milestones are met, to advance the development of a new class of antibiotics that inhibit bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis, an essential pathway in many drug-resistant bacterial species. This new class of antibiotics is in development for the treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by the multidrug-resistant superbug Acinetobacter baumannii.

CEPI – Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations [to 18 May 2019]
http://cepi.net/
13 May 2019
ProMED Disease Outbreak Update
Update on Ebola outbreak in DRC, Rift Valley fever in Mayotte, and MERS outbreak in Saudi Arabia.

Clinton Health Access Initiative, Inc. (CHAI) [to 18 May 2019]
https://clintonhealthaccess.org/about/
No new digest content identified.

EDCTP [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.edctp.org/
The European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) aims to accelerate the development of new or improved drugs, vaccines, microbicides and diagnostics against HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria as well as other poverty-related and neglected infectious diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, with a focus on phase II and III clinical trials
No new digest content identified.

Emory Vaccine Center [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.vaccines.emory.edu/
No new digest content identified.

European Medicines Agency [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/
News and press releases
No new digest content identified.

European Vaccine Initiative [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.euvaccine.eu/news-events
No new digest content identified.

FDA [to 18 May 2019]
https://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/default.htm
No new digest content identified.

Fondation Merieux [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.fondation-merieux.org/
No new digest content identified.

Gavi [to 18 May 2019]
https://www.gavi.org/
17 May 2019
Gavi welcomes G7 initiative on primary health care
G7 health ministers adopt new primary health care initiative and call for strengthened health care at every stage of life

GHIT Fund [to 18 May 2019]
https://www.ghitfund.org/newsroom/press
GHIT was set up in 2012 with the aim of developing new tools to tackle infectious diseases that devastate the world’s poorest people. Other funders include six Japanese pharmaceutical
No new digest content identified.

Global Fund [to 18 May 2019]
https://www.theglobalfund.org/en/news/
News
Global Fund Board Steps Up the Fight Against AIDS, TB and Malaria
16 May 2019
[See Milestones above for detail]

Hilleman Laboratories [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.hillemanlabs.org/
No new digest content identified.

Human Vaccines Project [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.humanvaccinesproject.org/media/press-releases/
No new digest content identified.

IAVI [to 18 May 2019]
https://www.iavi.org/newsroom
May 16, 2019
IAVI and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine to Partner in Snakebite Consortium
NEW YORK — May 16, 2019 — The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) and the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) today announced a new global research consortium, the Scientific Research Partnership for Neglected Tropical Snakebite (SRPNTS). Funded with £9 million of UK aid from the UK government through the Department for International Development (DFID), this consortium will discover and develop novel monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies to significantly improve the efficacy, safety, and affordability of snakebite treatment in India and Africa.
Joining IAVI and LSTM in the consortium are the Nigeria Snakebite Research & Intervention Centre (Bayero University, Kano), the Kenya Snakebite Research & Intervention Centre (Institute of Primate Research, Nairobi), the Indian Institute of Science (Bangalore), and Scripps Research (La Jolla). IAVI will coordinate the snakebite research partnership with funding provided by DFID over three years. The consortium will employ IAVI technologies and capabilities used originally for discovering HIV-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to develop new antivenom therapies.
“IAVI and its partners have over a decade of experience in researching broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV to inform development of biomedical tools for HIV prevention, and we are committed to applying this expertise to help advance treatment and prevention for other diseases,” said IAVI President and CEO Mark Feinberg, M.D., Ph.D. “This partnership enabled by DFID allows us to work with LSTM and other experts to apply our antibody expertise to advance next-generation snakebite therapies for the world’s most vulnerable people.”…

 

IFFIm
http://www.iffim.org/library/news/press-releases/
No new digest content identified.

IFRC [to 18 May 2019]
http://media.ifrc.org/ifrc/news/press-releases/
Selected Press Releases, Announcements
Americas, Argentina
Major humanitarian conference to explore regional crises, migration
Buenos Aires/Panama/Geneva, 17 May 2018 – Red Cross leaders from across the Americas and around the world are gathering in Buenos Aires from 21-23 May for the 21st Inter-American Conference of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent …
17 May 2019

Africa, Democratic Republic of the Congo
DR Congo: We cannot scale down while Ebola escalates, says IFRC
Geneva, 16 May 2019 – The international community must urgently increase its investment in Ebola response efforts in the Democratic Republic of the Congo before the outbreak escalates further, warns the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Cre …
16 May 2019

Asia Pacific, DPRK
DPR Korea: Hunger warning after early drought
Early seasonal drought in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) could exacerbate hunger, malnutrition and health problems for thousands of children, pregnant and breastfeeding women, older people and the chronically ill.

IVAC [to 18 May 2019]
https://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/ivac/index.html
No new digest content identified.

IVI [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.ivi.int/
IVI News & Announcements
Former KSC Vice President Ms. Joanne Lee donates 50 million KRW to IVI
Undated
Ms. Joanne Lee, former Vice President of the Korea Support Committee for IVI and former Chairperson of the IVI Fundraising Campaign Committee (2005-2006), donated 50 million KRW (US$42,000) via KSC to support IVI’s vaccine research and development…

JEE Alliance [to 18 May 2019]
https://www.jeealliance.org/
Selected News and Events
No new digest content identified.

MSF/Médecins Sans Frontières [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.msf.org/
Selected News; Project Updates, Reports [as presented on website]
Tuberculosis
Breaking the cycle: Paediatric DR-TB detection, care and treat…
Report 17 May 2019

Nigeria
“I have not seen such high numbers of measles cases”
Project Update 17 May 2019

Syria
Women and children continue to suffer in northeast Syria’s Al Hol …
Press Release 16 May 2019

Palestine
Gaza, one year after the protests’ bloodiest day
Project Update 14 May 2019

Rohingya refugee crisis
Crisis Update 14 May 2019

Rohingya refugee crisis
Saving lives that have just begun in Cox’s Bazar
Project Update 13 May 2019

Mozambique
Update on MSF emergency response to Cyclones Idai and Kenneth
Crisis Update 13 May 2019

NIH [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases
May 17, 2019
HIV Vaccine Awareness Day 2019 — May 18, 2019
— Statement by Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, and Maureen M. Goodenow, Ph.D., NIH Associate Director for AIDS Research and Director, Office of AIDS Research
…We have the tools at hand that could — if fully implemented — end the HIV pandemic. Large clinical studies have proven that individuals with HIV who use antiretroviral therapy to achieve and maintain an undetectable viral load do not sexually transmit HIV to others—a concept known as undetectable = untransmittable (U=U). People who are at high risk for HIV can take a single daily pill known as PrEP, or pre-exposure prophylaxis, that is highly effective at protecting them from the virus. In addition, post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, provides a highly effective emergency means of preventing HIV transmission from a recent high-risk exposure and can serve as a bridge to PrEP….

Human antibody reveals hidden vulnerability in influenza virus
May 16, 2019 — Discovery by NIAID-funded researchers could aid quest for universal flu vaccine.

PATH [to 18 May 2019]
https://www.path.org/media-center/
No new digest content identified.

Sabin Vaccine Institute [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.sabin.org/updates/pressreleases
No new digest content identified.

UNAIDS [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.unaids.org/en
Selected Press Releases/Reports/Statements
17 May 2019
UNAIDS partners with Pride House Tokyo ahead of 2020 Olympic Games

16 May 2019
Declaration of the Rights of People Affected by Tuberculosis launched
Tuberculosis (TB) is the world’s number one cause of death from an infectious disease and remains the leading cause of death among people living with HIV, despite being preventable and curable. Reacting to the unacceptable burden of disease and death caused by TB, a new network of TB survivors and affected communities, called TB People, compiled the Declaration of the Rights of People Affected by Tuberculosis, with the support of leading human rights lawyers and the Stop TB Partnership.
The declaration, launched on 14 May at the Global Health Campus in Geneva, Switzerland, will guide countries to implement the commitments made at the 2018 United Nations High-Level Meeting on Tuberculosis and will inform the last board meeting of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund) before its replenishment meeting in Lyon, France, in October…

13 May 2019
HIV infections among children falling
The continuing fall in the number of children becoming infected with HIV is a major public health triumph. Globally, 1.6 million new child infections were averted between 2008 and 2017, an achievement that stems from a steep increase in the percentage of pregnant women living with HIV who receive antiretroviral medicines to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV or as lifelong therapy, from 25% in 2008 to 80% in 2017.
However, much remains to be done. Efforts to prevent mother-to-child transmission have been slowed by inconsistent treatment adherence among expectant and breastfeeding mothers living with HIV and by the significant numbers of pregnant and breastfeeding women with undiagnosed HIV. A high risk of HIV acquisition faced by women in Africa during pregnancy and breastfeeding has also been underappreciated.

UNICEF [to 18 May 2019]
https://www.unicef.org/media/press-releases
Selected Statements, Press Releases, Reports
Press release
UNICEF and partners vaccinate hundreds of thousands of children affected by Cyclone Idai; stepping up life-saving cholera prevention work in northern areas affected by Cyclone Kenneth
APUTO, 16 May 2019 –  Hundreds of thousands of children affected by deadly Cyclone Idai in Mozambique have been vaccinated and received vitamin A supplements in the past week, with UNICEF and partners including the World Health Organisation (WHO) supporting the Government-led Health Week in the 21 most affected districts of Sofala, Manica, Inhambane, and Zambézia provinces.

To date more than 700,000 children have been vaccinated against Polio and more than 650,000 children against Measles and Rubella. Teams also reached nearly 700,000 children with vitamin A supplements; dewormed more than 550,000 children; more than 650,000 adolescent girls received Iron and folic acid supplements; and nearly 700,000 children were screened for malnutrition and acute case referred for life-saving treatment.  UNICEF appreciates the remarkable effort of health teams to overcome all barriers to reach every community with a broad, integrated package of services to promote the health and nutrition of children and pregnant women…

…To prevent the spread of cholera, UNICEF with partners in the Government-led Cholera Taskforce is operating Rapid Response teams which immediately deploy to households with reported cases, disinfecting houses and intensifying water treatment in neighboring homes.
In Pemba today, the Government-led Cholera Taskforce launched the cholera vaccination campaign, with support from UNICEF and partners. On 12 May, UNICEF flew in in Oral Cholera Vaccines to reach more than 250,000 people in Cyclone Kenneth-affected areas, purchased with the financial support of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI). UNICEF-supported teams are conducting community awareness and outreach programmes, including working closely with religious and community leaders. Given the Ramadan period, additional measures are being put in place to be able to administer the Oral Cholera Vaccine respecting community needs.

“Cholera and other infectious diseases continue to be a major threat to children and families in these early days after Cyclone Kenneth,” said Mr Le Pechoux. “The two-round Oral Cholera Vaccine campaign is another key step in stopping the spread of cholera, at the same time as we keep our focus on safe water, sanitation and hygiene,” he said. “We are still in the critical days of emergency response to reach every family affected by Cyclone Kenneth, and we have a long way to go to ensure that every child is safe and healthy.”

Press release
1 in 7 babies worldwide born with a low birthweight – The Lancet Global Health, UNICEF, WHO
Progress is also slow in high-income countries including the UK, Finland, France, Germany, USA, Australia, and New Zealand.
15/05/2019

Press release
UNICEF Executive Director Henrietta Fore addresses the UN Security Council on Yemen in New York, 15 May 2019
15/05/2019
[Excerpt]
… Every 10 minutes, another child will die from a preventable cause.
Like a lack of food, with 360,000 children suffering from severe acute malnutrition. In fact, half the children under five years old in Yemen — 2.5 million — are stunted. And stunting is irreversible.
Like a lack of a simple vaccination — with 151 children dying of diphtheria since last August. Or like cholera and severe acute watery diarrhea. Despite the best efforts of the humanitarian community — including over two million doses of oral cholera vaccines delivered over the last year — there are over 135,000 suspected cases reported so far this year among children. Over 3,300 people have died of cholera since 2017 — including 153 children since January alone. A number that will increase as we head into the rainy season. And as always, the children die first…

Vaccine Confidence Project [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.vaccineconfidence.org/
No new digest content identified.

Vaccine Education Center – Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.chop.edu/centers-programs/vaccine-education-center
No new digest content identified.

Wellcome Trust [to 18 May 2019]
https://wellcome.ac.uk/news
No new digest content identified.

The Wistar Institute [to 18 May 2019]
https://www.wistar.org/news/press-releases
Press Release
May. 15, 2019
Enhanced Anticancer Compound May Allow for Precise Activation and Tracking of Treatment
The compound requires activation with precise stimuli that would also cause emission of fluorescence for spatiotemporal control of activity.

World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.oie.int/en/for-the-media/press-releases/2019/
No new digest content identified.

 

::::::

BIO [to 18 May 2019]
https://www.bio.org/insights/press-release
May 17 2019
BIO Applauds Senate Passage of the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness and Advancing Innovation Act
Washington, DC – The Biotechnology Innovation Organization (BIO) today applauds the Senate passage of the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness and Advancing Innovation (PAHPAI) Act (S. 1379). The legislation would re-authorize critical federal biodefense programs and agencies, including the BioShield Special Reserve Fund (SRF), the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), and the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS). The legislation also authorizes funding for pandemic influenza product development and procurement for the first time…

DCVMN – Developing Country Vaccine Manufacturers Network [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.dcvmn.org/
27 May 2019 to 30 May 2019
Advanced workshop: Vaccine Safety Monitoring and Pharmacovigilance
Sao Paulo – Brasil

IFPMA [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.ifpma.org/resources/news-releases/
No new digest content identified.

PhRMA [to 18 May 2019]
http://www.phrma.org/press-room
No new digest content identified.

Journal Watch

Journal Watch
Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review continues its weekly scanning of key peer-reviewed journals to identify and cite articles, commentary and editorials, books reviews and other content supporting our focus on vaccine ethics and policy. Journal Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues the Center is actively tracking. We selectively provide full text of some editorial and comment articles that are specifically relevant to our work. Successful access to some of the links provided may require subscription or other access arrangement unique to the publisher.
If you would like to suggest other journal titles to include in this service, please contact David Curry at: david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org

Safety of a bivalent, killed, whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in pregnant women in Bangladesh: evidence from a randomized placebo-controlled trial

BMC Infectious Diseases
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content
(Accessed 18 May 2019)

 

Research article
Safety of a bivalent, killed, whole-cell oral cholera vaccine in pregnant women in Bangladesh: evidence from a randomized placebo-controlled trial
Cholera increases the risk of harmful effects on foetuses. We prospectively followed pregnant women unaware of their pregnancy status who received a study agent in a clinical trial evaluating the association b…
Authors: Ashraful Islam Khan, Mohammad Ali, Julia Lynch, Alamgir Kabir, Jean-Louis Excler, Md. Arifuzzaman Khan, Md. Taufiqul Islam, Afroza Akter, Fahima Chowdhury, Amit Saha, Iqbal Ansary Khan, Sachin N. Desai, Deok Ryun Kim, Nirod Chandra Saha, Ajit P. Singh, John D. Clemens…
Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:422
Published on: 15 May 2019

“It depends how one understands it:” a qualitative study on differential uptake of oral cholera vaccine in three compounds in Lusaka, Zambia

BMC Infectious Diseases
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content
(Accessed 18 May 2019)

 

Research article
“It depends how one understands it:” a qualitative study on differential uptake of oral cholera vaccine in three compounds in Lusaka, Zambia
The Zambian Ministry of Health implemented a reactive one-dose Oral Cholera Vaccine (OCV) campaign in April 2016 in three Lusaka compounds, followed by a pre-emptive second-round in December. Understanding upt…
Authors: Leonard W. Heyerdahl, Miguel Pugliese-Garcia, Sharon Nkwemu, Taniya Tembo, Chanda Mwamba, Rachel Demolis, Roma Chilengi, Bradford D. Gessner, Elise Guillermet and Anjali Sharma
Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:421
Published on: 14 May 2019

Influenza epidemiology and influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2015–2016 season: results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network

BMC Infectious Diseases
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content
(Accessed 18 May 2019)

 

Research article
Influenza epidemiology and influenza vaccine effectiveness during the 2015–2016 season: results from the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network
The Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network is an international platform whose primary objective is to study severe cases of influenza requiring hospitalization.
Authors: Joan Puig-Barberà, Ainara Mira-Iglesias, Elena Burtseva, Benjamin J. Cowling, Unal Serhat, Guillermo Miguel Ruiz-Palacios, Odile Launay, Jan Kyncl, Parvaiz Koul, Marilda M. Siqueira and Anna Sominina
Citation: BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 19:415
Published on: 14 May 2019

How should assent to research be sought in low income settings? Perspectives from parents and children in Southern Malawi

BMC Medical Ethics
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcmedethics/content
(Accessed 18 May 2019)

 

Research article
How should assent to research be sought in low income settings? Perspectives from parents and children in Southern Malawi
Authors: Helen Mangochi, Kate Gooding, Aisleen Bennett, Michael Parker, Nicola Desmond and Susan Bull
Citation: BMC Medical Ethics 2019 20:32
Published on: 14 May 2019
Abstract
Background
Paediatric research in low-income countries is essential to tackle high childhood mortality. As with all research, consent is an essential part of ethical practice for paediatric studies. Ethics guidelines recommend that parents or another proxy provide legal consent for children to participate, but that children should be involved in the decision through providing assent. However, there remain uncertainties about how to judge when children are ready to give assent and about appropriate assent processes. Malawi does not yet have detailed guidelines on assent. Understanding perspectives among children and their parents can assist in developing contextually-appropriate assent guidance.
Methods
Qualitative research was conducted with children and parents in three settings in Southern Malawi (low- and high-income urban and rural), to take account of any variations between socioeconomic and cultural contexts. In each setting, interviews were conducted with parents and their children who had participated in paediatric research to understand their experiences of assent and views on appropriate assent practice. Focus groups were also conducted with children and parents, to understand broader social perspectives.
Results
We found widespread support for involving children in decisions on research participation. Participants identified a range of factors that affect children’s capacity to give assent, including intellectual capacity, emotional development, life experience and cultural norms. Age was often mentioned as a consideration, but deemed an unreliable sole indicator of capacity to assent. In relation to appropriate assent processes, participants emphasised considerations such as supporting effective understanding and minimizing harms. Views on how to achieve these aims varied; for example, there were different ideas about the appropriate order in which to approach children and parents, and about whose decision to respect in the event of disagreement.
Conclusions
Parents and children agreed about the value of involving children in decisions on research, and about the need to promote children’s decision-making capacity while respecting parents’ interests in children’s welfare. Developing practical guidance that meets these principles is challenging, particularly given the need for flexible approaches that suit different study types, children’s capacities and family environments. Further discussion within the Malawi research and ethics community will help develop contextually-appropriate guidelines.

The introduction of ‘No jab, No school’ policy and the refinement of measles immunisation strategies in high-income countries

BMC Medicine
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcmed/content
(Accessed 18 May 2019)

 

Research article
The introduction of ‘No jab, No school’ policy and the refinement of measles immunisation strategies in high-income countries
In recent years, we witnessed a resurgence of measles even in countries where, according to WHO guidelines, elimination should have already been achieved. In high-income countries, the raise of anti-vaccinatio…
Authors: Filippo Trentini, Piero Poletti, Alessia Melegaro and Stefano Merler
Citation: BMC Medicine 2019 17:86
Published on: 17 May 2019

System within systems: challenges and opportunities for the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in Pakistan

Health Research Policy and Systems
http://www.health-policy-systems.com/content
[Accessed 18 May 2019]

 

Research
System within systems: challenges and opportunities for the Expanded Programme on Immunisation in Pakistan
Pakistan has one of the highest infant and child mortality rates in the world, half of these occurring due to vaccine-preventable diseases. The country started its Expanded Programme on immunisation (EPI) in 1…
Authors: Zaeem Haq, Babar Tasneem Shaikh, Nhan Tran, Assad Hafeez and Abdul Ghaffar
Citation: Health Research Policy and Systems 2019 17:51
Published on: 17 May 2019

An intervention to improve pneumococcal vaccination uptake in high risk 50-64 year olds vs. expanded age-based recommendations: an exploratory cost-effectiveness analysis

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (formerly Human Vaccines)
Volume 15, Issue 4, 2019
http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/khvi20/current

 

Article
An intervention to improve pneumococcal vaccination uptake in high risk 50-64 year olds vs. expanded age-based recommendations: an exploratory cost-effectiveness analysis
Angela R. Wateska, Mary Patricia Nowalk, Chyongchiou J. Lin, Lee H. Harrison, William Schaffner, Richard K. Zimmerman & Kenneth J. Smith
Pages: 863-872
Published online: 20 Feb 2019

Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards compulsory vaccination: a systematic review

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (formerly Human Vaccines)
Volume 15, Issue 4, 2019
http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/khvi20/current

 

Article
Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards compulsory vaccination: a systematic review
MR Gualano, E Olivero, G Voglino, M Corezzi, P Rossello, C Vicentini, F Bert & R Siliquini
Pages: 918-931
Published online: 20 Feb 2019

Key considerations for successful implementation of maternal immunization programs in low and middle income countries

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (formerly Human Vaccines)
Volume 15, Issue 4, 2019
http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/khvi20/current

 

Article
Key considerations for successful implementation of maternal immunization programs in low and middle income countries
Sushena Krishnaswamy, Philipp Lambach & Michelle L. Giles
Pages: 942-950
Published online: 30 Jan 2019

HPV vaccination acceptability among men who have sex with men in Urumqi, China

Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (formerly Human Vaccines)
Volume 15, Issue 4, 2019
http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/khvi20/current

 

Article
HPV vaccination acceptability among men who have sex with men in Urumqi, China
Tian Tian, Duolao Wang, Christiana Papamichael, Zhang Yan, Sang Guoyao, Zhang Zhanlin, Yeledan Mahan, Tuo Xiaoqing, Gong Zheng & Dai Jianghong
Pages: 1005-1012
Published online: 25 Sep 2018

Global infection prevention gaps, needs, and utilization of educational resources: A cross-sectional assessment by the International Society for Infectious Diseases

International Journal of Infectious Diseases
May 2019 Volume 82, p1-146
https://www.ijidonline.com/issue/S1201-9712(19)X0007-7

 

Original Reports
Global infection prevention gaps, needs, and utilization of educational resources: A cross-sectional assessment by the International Society for Infectious Diseases
Angel N. Desai, John W. Ramatowski, Britta Lassmann, Alison Holmes, Shaheen Mehtar, Gonzalo Bearman
p54–60
Published online: February 19, 2019

Continue reading

Influenza in obese travellers: increased risk and complications, decreased vaccine effectiveness

Journal of Travel Medicine
Volume 26, Issue 3, 2019
https://academic.oup.com/jtm/issue/26/3

 

Reviews
Influenza in obese travellers: increased risk and complications, decreased vaccine effectiveness
Rebekah Honce, BS; Stacey Schultz-Cherry, PhD
Journal of Travel Medicine, Volume 26, Issue 3, 2019, taz020, https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/taz020

Rapidly waning vaccine effectiveness for influenza: How often should we revaccinate?

Journal of Travel Medicine
Volume 26, Issue 3, 2019
https://academic.oup.com/jtm/issue/26/3

 

Perspectives
Rapidly waning vaccine effectiveness for influenza: How often should we revaccinate?
Barnaby Young, MB BChir; Sapna Sadarangani, MBBS
Journal of Travel Medicine, Volume 26, Issue 3, 2019, tay154, https://doi.org/10.1093/jtm/tay154
Observations that influenza vaccine effectiveness declines within a few months after vaccination have important implications for travellers. Influenza vaccination prior to travel to areas where influenza is circulating needs to be considered even when a vaccine has been administered within the past year. However, recently described short-term benefits from early revaccination need to be weighed against the potential for reduced effectiveness with frequent revaccination.

WHO takes action to promote the health of refugees and migrants

The Lancet
May 18, 2019 Volume 393Number 10185p2009-2098, e40

 

Comment
WHO takes action to promote the health of refugees and migrants
Lawrence O Gostin, Ibrahim Abubakar, Ranieri Guerra, Sabina F Rashid, Eric A Friedman,
Zsuzsanna Jakab
Migration is a defining issue of our time.1 There are 1 billion migrants globally, of whom 258 million have crossed borders. 2 Climate change and political instability propel ever-greater displacement, with major detriments to health. 3 Policies that fail to prevent human trafficking or guarantee essential services to migrants undermine universal health coverage (UHC) and the global pledge in the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to “leave no one behind”. The World Health Assembly (WHA) on May 20–28, 2019, should adopt, and robustly implement, WHO’s Global Action Plan on Promoting the Health of Refugees and Migrants, 2019–2013 (GAP).

Mass gatherings medicine: public health issues arising from mass gathering religious and sporting events

The Lancet
May 18, 2019 Volume 393Number 10185p2009-2098, e40

 

Review
Mass gatherings medicine: public health issues arising from mass gathering religious and sporting events
Ziad A Memish, Robert Steffen, Paul White, Osman Dar, Esam I Azhar, Avinash Sharma, Alimuddin Zumla
Summary
Mass gathering events are associated with major public health challenges. The 2014 Lancet Series on the new discipline of mass gatherings medicine was launched at the World Health Assembly of Ministers of Health in Geneva in May, 2014. The Series covered the planning and surveillance systems used to monitor public health risks, public health threats, and experiences of health-care providers from mass gathering events in 2012 and 2013. This follow-up Review focuses on the main public health issues arising from planned mass gathering events held between 2013 and 2018. We highlight public health and research data on transmission of infectious diseases and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, mass casualty incidents, and non-communicable diseases, including thermal disorders. In the events discussed in this Review, the combination of a large influx of people, many from countries with outbreak-prone infectious diseases, with a high degree of crowd interactions imposed substantial burdens on host countries’ health systems. The detection and transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in pilgrims attending the Kumbh Mela and the Hajj raise concern of possible globalisation from mass-gathering religious events. Priorities for further investments and opportunities for research into prevention, surveillance, and management of these public health issues are discussed.

Vaccination lags behind in middle-income countries

Nature
Volume 569 Issue 7756, 16 May 2019
http://www.nature.com/nature/current_issue.html

 

World View | 14 May 2019
Vaccination lags behind in middle-income countries
Poor children in relatively rich nations are being let down by immunization programmes
Seth Berkley, Gavi
Indonesia, Iraq and South Africa now rank among the ten countries with the highest number of under-immunized children worldwide, even though these countries are richer than many of their neighbours. What is going on?
Not so long ago, improving the health of the world’s poorest people meant focusing on the world’s poorest countries. That’s changing. Soon, the majority of the most vulnerable populations will be in middle-income countries (MICs), where gross national income per capita is between US$995 and $12,055 per year. Increasing migration, urbanization, conflict and climate change are causing inequities to yawn ever wider, despite United Nations Sustainable Development Goals to leave no one behind.
As the World Health Assembly meets in Geneva, Switzerland, next week, the development community must tackle an emerging conundrum: how do we increase access to vaccines, primary health care and other essential health interventions in countries that can — at least according to their gross national incomes — afford them?…

Big Data and the Intelligence Community — Lessons for Health Care

New England Journal of Medicine
May 16, 2019 Vol. 380 No. 20
http://www.nejm.org/toc/nejm/medical-journal

Perspective
Big Data and the Intelligence Community — Lessons for Health Care
Kevin Vigilante, M.D., M.P.H., Steve Escaravage, M.S., and Mike McConnell, M.P.A.
Health care is lagging behind other industries in its approaches to data science, in part because it is relatively new to big data. By learning from the intelligence community, the health sector can accelerate progress and capitalize on existing innovations.

Decreasing measles burden by optimizing campaign timing

PNAS – Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States
of America
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/
[Accessed 18 May 2019]
Decreasing measles burden by optimizing campaign timing
Niket Thakkar, Syed Saqlain Ahmad Gilani, Quamrul Hasan, and Kevin A. McCarthy
PNAS first published May 13, 2019
Significance
Measles vaccine is a highly effective healthcare intervention, but getting vaccine to those in need remains a major problem. Complicating the issue, high-burden countries typically have low-quality infrastructure, severely limiting the number of infections detected and therefore limiting our understanding of local epidemiology. Here we show that statistical disease models can be fitted to sparse case data from Pakistan using a fast linear regression approach. This method yields estimates of the effects of past interventions, the seasonal likelihood of measles transmission, and the magnitude of future outbreaks under different intervention policies. We use these models to understand in general when and where vaccine should be distributed, and these results were used to inform Pakistan’s 2018 vaccination campaign planning.
Abstract
Measles remains a major contributor to preventable child mortality, and bridging gaps in measles immunity is a fundamental challenge to global health. In high-burden settings, mass vaccination campaigns are conducted to increase access to vaccine and address this issue. Ensuring that campaigns are optimally effective is a crucial step toward measles elimination; however, the relationship between campaign impact and disease dynamics is poorly understood. Here, we study measles in Pakistan, and we demonstrate that campaign timing can be tuned to optimally interact with local transmission seasonality and recent incidence history. We develop a mechanistic modeling approach to optimize timing in general high-burden settings, and we find that in Pakistan, hundreds of thousands of infections can be averted with no change in campaign cost.

Resurgence of Vector-Borne and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Venezuela in Times of a Complex Humanitarian Health Crisis: A Regional Menace

Prehospital & Disaster Medicine
Volume 34 – Issue s1 – May 2019
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/prehospital-and-disaster-medicine/latest-issue

 

Best Papers
Resurgence of Vector-Borne and Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Venezuela in Times of a Complex Humanitarian Health Crisis: A Regional Menace
Adriana Tami, Maria Eugenia Grillet, Alberto Paniz-Mondolfi, José Oletta, Martin S Llewellyn, Juan V Hernández-Villena, Marilianna Márquez, on behalf of the working group on emerging and re-emerging diseases in Venezuela
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X1900030X
Published online: 06 May 2019, pp. s5-s6

Engaging Communities to Reach Immigrant and Minority Populations: The Minnesota Immunization Networking Initiative (MINI), 2006-2017

Public Health Reports
Volume 134 Issue 3, May/June 2019
https://journals.sagepub.com/toc/phrg/134/3

 

Case Study/Practice
Engaging Communities to Reach Immigrant and Minority Populations: The Minnesota Immunization Networking Initiative (MINI), 2006-2017
Patricia Peterson, MPA, Paula McNabb, MN, PHN, Sai Ramya Maddali, MPH, Jennifer Heath, DNP, MPH, RN, Scott Santibañez, MD, DMin, MPHTM
First Published March 26, 2019; pp. 241–248

Quantifying the public’s view on social value judgments in vaccine decision-making: A discrete choice experiment

Social Science & Medicine
Volume 228 Pages 1-294 (May 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/social-science-and-medicine/vol/228/suppl/C

 

Research article Abstract only
Quantifying the public’s view on social value judgments in vaccine decision-making: A discrete choice experiment
Jeroen Luyten, Roselinde Kessels, Katherine E. Atkins, Mark Jit, Albert Jan van Hoek
Pages 181-193

Immunization in pregnancy safety surveillance in low and middle-income countries- field performance and validation of novel case definitions

Vaccine
Volume 37, Issue 22  Pages 2871-2974 (16 May 2019)
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/vaccine/vol/37/issue/22

 

Research article Open access
Immunization in pregnancy safety surveillance in low and middle-income countries- field performance and validation of novel case definitions
Sonali Kochhar, Ed Clarke, Alane Izu, Kebonethebe Emmanuel Kekane – Mochwari, Clare L. Cutland
Pages 2967-2974

Combating Vaccine Hesitancy with Vaccine-Preventable Disease Familiarization: An Interview and Curriculum Intervention for College Students

Vaccines — Open Access Journal
http://www.mdpi.com/journal/vaccines
(Accessed 18 May 2019)

 

Open Access Article
Combating Vaccine Hesitancy with Vaccine-Preventable Disease Familiarization: An Interview and Curriculum Intervention for College Students
by Deborah K. Johnson, Emily J. Mello, Trent D. Walker, Spencer J. Hood, Jamie L. Jensen and Brian D. Poole
Vaccines 2019, 7(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines7020039 – 12 May 2019
Abstract
In 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) listed vaccine hesitancy in its top ten threats to global health. Vaccine hesitancy is a “delay in acceptance or refusal to vaccinate despite availability of vaccination services”. Urban areas with large amounts of vaccine hesitancy are at risk for the resurgence of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Many vaccine-hesitant (VH) parents may be unfamiliar with the consequences of VPDs, and thus might be swayed when confronted with the symptoms and dangers of VPDs. As such, we sought to educate college students (future parents) in an urban vaccine-hesitant hotspot by assigning them to interview family or community members who had experienced a VPD. Student vaccine attitudes were assessed by surveys before and after the interviews. Vaccine-hesitant students who conducted a VPD interview but received no additional vaccine educational materials were significantly more likely (interaction term p < 0.001) to become pro-vaccine (PV) (68%) than students who conducted an autoimmune interview and received no additional educational materials. Additionally, students whose interviewees experienced intense physical suffering or physical limitations or students who were enrolled in a course with intensive VPD and vaccine curriculum had significantly increased vaccine attitudes. This suggests that introducing students to VPDs can decrease vaccine hesitancy.

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

From Google Scholar & other sources: Selected Journal Articles, Newsletters, Dissertations, Theses, Commentary

Current Tropical Medicine Reports
First Online: 08 May 2019
Changing Epidemiology, Treatment, and Vaccine Update on Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika Viruses
A Sanyaolu, O Ayodele, L Likaj, A Marinkovic, J Locke…
Abstract
Purpose of Review
Now more than ever, regions other than Africa and Asia, such as the USA, are being affected by the rising epidemic of vector-borne illnesses, specifically Chikungunya, Dengue, and Zika viruses; this has prompted this review aimed at discussing the changing epidemiology of the three diseases as well as the current treatment and vaccines in development to control the diseases. With the viruses being spread through a variety of ways, including, but not limited to, mosquito bites, fetal transmission, sexual contact, breast milk, and saliva, there is no doubt that more preventative measures are required.
Recent Findings
The changing epidemiology of the three viruses is already creating an impact, with the spread of Dengue in 2009 in Florida, to the 2013 spread of Chikungunya through the Caribbean, and now, the Zika virus making its mark on the tropics with major concerns of it spreading to the Western Hemisphere, including the USA. Although, they are all vector-borne illnesses, each carries its own clinical presentations that sometimes make it hard to diagnose. Collectively, there are no current vaccines or antiviral drugs against these three viruses, and with no sign of the spread slowing down, more geographic regions are in danger of being hit by these diseases in the near future.
Summary
As the evolving world for the three viruses continues due to changes in epidemiology, there is a dire need to develop vaccines for each of the three diseases that will target a variety of mechanisms to help fight the transmission and provide succor to affected communities. Public health preventive strategies need to be employed for proper actions to be take aimed at preventing viral transmission and ultimately, helping to fight this changing epidemiology of vector-borne diseases.

Media/Policy Watch

Media/Policy Watch
This watch section is intended to alert readers to substantive news, analysis and opinion from the general media and selected think tanks and similar organizations on vaccines, immunization, global public health and related themes. Media Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues CVEP is actively tracking. This section will grow from an initial base of newspapers, magazines and blog sources, and is segregated from Journal Watch above which scans the peer-reviewed journal ecology.
We acknowledge the Western/Northern bias in this initial selection of titles and invite suggestions for expanded coverage. We are conservative in our outlook in adding news sources which largely report on primary content we are already covering above. Many electronic media sources have tiered, fee-based subscription models for access. We will provide full-text where content is published without restriction, but most publications require registration and some subscription level.

 

The Atlantic
http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/
Accessed 18 May 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

BBC
http://www.bbc.co.uk/
Accessed 18 May 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

The Economist
http://www.economist.com/
Accessed 18 May 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

Financial Times
http://www.ft.com/home/uk
Accessed 18 May 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

Forbes
http://www.forbes.com/
Accessed 18 May 2019
May 17, 2019
Why Edward Jenner Infected His Gardener’s Son With Smallpox
Friday marks the 270th birthday of Edward Jenner, the doctor who developed the world’s first vaccine.
By Kiona N. Smith Contributor

 

Foreign Affairs
http://www.foreignaffairs.com/
Accessed 18 May 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

Foreign Policy
http://foreignpolicy.com/
Accessed 18 May 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

The Guardian
http://www.guardiannews.com/
Accessed 18 May 2019
New York
Orthodox Jewish communities face antisemitism over measles outbreak
Incidents such as a bus driver allegedly refusing to stop for a Hassidic man occur as New York City has nearly 500 measles cases
Orthodox Jewish communities in Brooklyn grappling with a measles outbreak say they are now dealing with a second scourge: fear, profiling and antisemitism inspired by the outbreak.
Incidents have piled up in recent weeks as measles cases continued to rise, community leaders say: a bus driver allegedly refused to stop for a Hassidic man, and then covered her face and shouted “measles” at him when he eventually got on…

 

New Yorker
http://www.newyorker.com/
Accessed 18 May 2019
[No new, unique, relevant content]

 

New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/
Accessed 18 May 2019
New York May 14
Despite Measles Warnings, Anti-Vaccine Rally Draws Hundreds of Ultra-Orthodox Jews
A “vaccine symposium” in Rockland County was denounced by health authorities and some ultra-Orthodox rabbis, who said the speakers were spreading dangerous propaganda.

 

Washington Post
http://www.washingtonpost.com/
Accessed 18 May 2019
Oregon vaccine bill dead as US measles count soars
Sarah Zimmerman | AP · May 14, 2019

Parents rally at state Capitol to keep vaccine exemptions
Associated Press · National · May 14, 2019

Think Tanks et al

Think Tanks et al

Brookings
http://www.brookings.edu/
Accessed 18 May 2019
[No new relevant content]

 

Center for Global Development
http://www.cgdev.org/page/press-center
May 15, 2019
We Asked, You Answered: Reflections on the First Round of MVAC Feedback
In March, our team at the Center for Global Development and Office of Health Economics posted a consultation draft of a policy proposal for a Market-Driven, Value-Based Advanced Commitment (MVAC). The MVAC is a new mechanism that puts middle-income country governments in the driver’s seat to accelerate R&D for diseases that affect the world’s poor—specifically, the 10 million men, women, and children who develop tuberculosis (TB) disease each year and desperately need better therapies.
Rachel Silverman, Kalipso Chalkidou and Adrian Towse

 

CSIS
https://www.csis.org/
Accessed 18 May 2019
[No new relevant content]

 

Council on Foreign Relations
http://www.cfr.org/
Accessed 18 May 2019
[No new relevant content]

 

Kaiser Family Foundation
https://www.kff.org/search/?post_type=press-release
Accessed 18 May 2019
[No new relevant content]

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review :: 11 May 2019

.– Request an Email Summary: Vaccines and Global Health : The Week in Review is published as a single email summary, scheduled for release each Saturday evening before midnight (EDT in the U.S.). If you would like to receive the email version, please send your request to david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org.

 pdf version A pdf of the current issue is available here:Vaccines and Global Health_The Week in Review_11 May 2019

– blog edition: comprised of the approx. 35+ entries posted below.

– Twitter:  Readers can also follow developments on twitter: @vaxethicspolicy.
.
– Links:  We endeavor to test each link as we incorporate it into any post, but recognize that some links may become “stale” as publications and websites reorganize content over time. We apologize in advance for any links that may not be operative. We believe the contextual information in a given post should allow retrieval, but please contact us as above for assistance if necessary.

Support this knowledge-sharing service: Your financial support helps us cover our costs and to address a current shortfall in our annual operating budget. Click here to donate and thank you in advance for your contribution.

.
David R. Curry, MS
Executive Director
Center for Vaccine Ethics and Policy

72nd session of the World Health Assembly

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

72nd session of the World Health Assembly
20-28 May 2019, Geneva
Main documents [selected]
A72/1 – Provisional agenda

A72/5 – Proposed programme budget 2020–2021
Thirteenth General Programme of Work, 2019-2023
WHO Impact Framework

A72/6 – Public health emergencies: preparedness and response
Report of the Independent Oversight and Advisory Committee for the WHO Health
Emergencies Programme

A72/7 – Public health emergencies: preparedness and response
WHO’s work in health emergencies

A72/8 – Public health emergencies: preparedness and response
International Health Regulations (2005)
Annual report on the implementation of the International Health Regulations (2005)

A72/9 – Polio Eradication

A72/10 – Polio Transition

A72/11 – Implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

A72/12 – Universal health coverage
Primary health care towards universal health coverage

A72/17 – Access to medicines and vaccines

A72/18 – Follow-up to the high-level meetings of the United Nations General Assembly on
health-related issues
Antimicrobial resistance

A72/19 – Follow-up to the high-level meetings of the United Nations General Assembly on
health-related issues
Prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases

A72/20 – Follow-up to the high-level meetings of the United Nations General Assembly on
health-related issues
Ending tuberculosis

A72/21 – Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework for the sharing of influenza viruses and
access to vaccines and other benefits
Implementation of decision WHA71(11) (2018)

A72/22 – Member State mechanism on substandard and falsified medical products

A72/25 – Promoting the health of refugees and migrants Draft global action plan, 2019–2023

A72/28 – Smallpox eradication: destruction of variola virus stocks

[Full Main Documents inventory at title link above]

Over 100,000 people sick with measles in 14 months: with measles cases at an alarming level in the European Region, WHO scales up response

Milestones :: Perspectives :: Research

 

Measles – Europe

Over 100,000 people sick with measles in 14 months: with measles cases at an alarming level in the European Region, WHO scales up response
Copenhagen, 9 May 2019
WHO is scaling up its response to the ongoing measles outbreaks in the European Region, including by creating an operational platform to accelerate its support to affected countries.
The decision followed an assessment of the measles situation in the Region. It was based on the growing number of children and adults affected by and dying from the disease, and the persistence of pockets of non-immunized or under-immunized individuals in many countries fuelling the continuing spread of measles.

Since 1 January 2018, 47 of the 53 countries in the Region have together reported over 100,000 measles cases and over 90 measles-related deaths. WHO has been supporting them over time to improve their immunization coverage and tackle disease spread. However, as measles continues to circulate across countries, more needs to be done.

“We have observed an unprecedented upsurge in people sick with this preventable disease, and too many have lost their lives to it,” says Dr Dorit Nitzan, Acting Regional Emergency Director at the WHO Regional Office for Europe. “This is unacceptable and we need to be bolder and scale up our response to the next level. I am proud to see that different parts and levels of WHO are intensifying their combined efforts to stop these outbreaks.”

“WHO has been working closely with countries in the European Region to enhance their capacity to protect children from measles. However, this alarming resurgence is a warning that the Region’s immunization coverage is not yet sufficient,” explains Dr Masoud Dara, Acting Director of Communicable Diseases at the WHO Regional Office for Europe. “Escalating our response will enable us to raise political awareness and will help in strengthening European health systems in the longer term to avoid future outbreaks.”

Featured Journal Content :: Vaccine

Featured Journal Content

 

Vaccine
Available online 3 May 2019
Review
Pregnant women & vaccines against emerging epidemic threats: Ethics guidance for preparedness, research, and response
Carleigh B.Krubinera1, Ruth R.FadenabRuth A.KarronbMargaret O.LittlecAnne D.LyerlydJon S.AbramsoneRichard H.BeigifAlejandro R.CraviotogAnna P.DurbinbBruce G.GellinhSwati B.GuptaiDavid C.KaslowjSonaliKochharkFlorenciaLunalCarlaSaenzmJeanne S.SheffieldnPaulina O.Tindanao2The PREVENT Working Group
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.011Get rights and content
Under a Creative Commons license
open access
Abstract
Zika virus, influenza, and Ebola have called attention to the ways in which infectious disease outbreaks can severely – and at times uniquely – affect the health interests of pregnant women and their offspring. These examples also highlight the critical need to proactively consider pregnant women and their offspring in vaccine research and response efforts to combat emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Historically, pregnant women and their offspring have been largely excluded from research agendas and investment strategies for vaccines against epidemic threats, which in turn can lead to exclusion from future vaccine campaigns amidst outbreaks. This state of affairs is profoundly unjust to pregnant women and their offspring, and deeply problematic from the standpoint of public health. To ensure that the needs of pregnant women and their offspring are fairly addressed, new approaches to public health preparedness, vaccine research and development, and vaccine delivery are required. This Guidance offers 22 concrete recommendations that provide a roadmap for the ethically responsible, socially just, and respectful inclusion of the interests of pregnant women in the development and deployment of vaccines against emerging pathogens. The Guidance was developed by the Pregnancy Research Ethics for Vaccines, Epidemics, and New Technologies (PREVENT) Working Group – a multidisciplinary, international team of 17 experts specializing in bioethics, maternal immunization, maternal-fetal medicine, obstetrics, pediatrics, philosophy, public health, and vaccine research and policy – in consultation with a variety of external experts and stakeholders.

Featured Journal Content :: DRC – Ebola

Featured Journal Content

DRC – Ebola

WHO Adapts Ebola Vaccination Strategy in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to Account for Insecurity and Community Feedback
7 May 2019 News release Geneva
WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) today issued new recommendations to address vaccination challenges in the ongoing Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

The recommendations include endorsing operational adjustments that make the vaccination process faster and adjusting the dosage based on available efficacy data. The SAGE also suggested expanding the population eligible for vaccination with rVSV-ZEBOV-GP (developed by Merck & Co., Inc), introducing an additional experimental vaccine (developed by Johnson & Johnson), and redoubling ongoing efforts to train nurses, doctors and medical students from Ebola-affected communities to work on vaccination teams.

Vaccination saving lives but challenges remain
More than 111 000 people have been vaccinated in the DRC since the outbreak was declared in August 2018. However, despite the use of a highly efficacious vaccine, the number of new cases continues to rise, in part due to repeated incidents of violence affecting the ability of response teams to immediately identify and create vaccination rings around all people at risk of contracting Ebola.

“We know that vaccination is saving lives in this outbreak,” said WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. “We also know that we still face challenges in making sure the contacts of every case receive the vaccine as soon as possible. These recommendations account for ongoing insecurity and incorporate feedback from experts and from the affected communities that will help us continue to adapt the response.”

Professor Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Director of the INRB and Principle Investigator for the rVSV ZEBOV Ebola vaccine protocol, also welcomed the recommendations.

“The DRC Presidential Commission on Ebola highly appreciates the new SAGE recommendations for the rVSV- ZEBOV GP vaccine,” said Professor Muyembe. “This will allow us to address the increasing demand for this vaccine from the communities. In my role as the Principal Investigator of this study, I will work with the teams to ensure the recommendations are implemented as soon as possible.”

Adapting ring vaccination operational approaches: pop-up and targeted geographic vaccination
The SAGE endorsed the use of pop-up and targeted geographic approaches to vaccination when appropriate. These vaccination approaches have already been used successfully in the field by WHO to make the ring vaccination process faster, more secure, and more responsive to community feedback.

In view of the fact that insecurity limits the time that vaccination teams can spend in some communities, and in response to community requests, SAGE recommended steps to streamline implementation of the vaccination protocol. SAGE also endorsed a modified follow-up for safety monitoring.

Adjusting rVSV ZEBOV GP vaccine dosage and eligible population
In addition to vaccinating contacts and contacts of contacts, SAGE now also recommends vaccinating those who could be part of tertiary chains of transmission, such as people in villages and neighborhoods where cases have been reported within the past 21 days. SAGE noted that increasing access to vaccination in the broader community may help enhance community acceptance of the vaccine and other control measures.

SAGE also recommended adjusting the dose of the vaccine currently being used.

“The SAGE emphasized that ring vaccination of contacts and contacts of contacts continues to be the preferred strategy.  However, the Working Group recognized that the current emergency and the available evidence called for a dose-adjusted approach to ensure vaccine continues to be available and offered to individuals at greatest risk of Ebola,” said Helen Rees, Co-Chair of the SAGE Ebola Vaccines Working Group.

People at highest risk (contacts and contacts of contacts) will now receive 0.5ml of vaccine instead of 1ml. This dosage is equal to that used in the successful Ebola ça suffit ring vaccination trial in Guinea in 2015, and is expected to provide the same level of protection.
Those for whom a rapid evolution of the immune response is less critical (people who are considered lower-risk / those who could be potentially involved in tertiary transmission) will receive 0.2ml (1/5 of the current dose).

Use of additional Ebola vaccines: plans for deployment of an additional vaccine underway   
The SAGE reiterated its previous stance stating the need to assess additional Ebola vaccines. SAGE now additionally recommends offering an alternative vaccine (other than rVSV-ZEBOV-GP) to those at lower risk within affected health areas…

Read the interim recommendations for Ebola vaccines pdf, 336kb
7 May 2019

 

::::::

Disease Outbreak News (DONs)
Ebola virus disease – Democratic Republic of the Congo
9 May 2019
The Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak response this past week continues to be hampered by insecurity. On 3 May in Katwa, a Safe and Dignified Burial (SDB) team was violently attacked following the completion of a burial for a deceased EVD case. In Butembo and surrounding health zones, response activities were repeatedly halted due to a number of serious security incidents taking place from 4-6 May. On 8 May, a group of over 50 armed militia infiltrated the city centre. Security forces repelled the attack following intense gunfire in close proximity to staff accommodations. Although activities resumed on 9 May, after almost five consecutive days of suspension, threats of further attacks against EVD response teams and facilities remain prevalent.
These security incidents, and especially the resultant lack of access to EVD affected communities, remain a major impediment to the response, with teams unable to perform robust surveillance nor deliver much needed treatment and immunisations. The ongoing violent attacks sow fear, perpetuate mistrust, and further compound the multitude of challenges already faced by frontline healthcare workers. Without commitment from all groups to cease these attacks, it is unlikely that this EVD outbreak can remain successfully contained in North Kivu and Ituri provinces…