Investing in public health—driving prosperity for the present and future generations

The European Journal of Public Health
Volume 28, Issue 3, 1 June 2018
https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/issue/28/3

Editorials
Investing in public health—driving prosperity for the present and future generations
M Dyakova; C Hamelmann
Extract
Countries across Europe and the World are faced with growing health, inequity, social security, economic and environmental challenges. We need urgent, innovative and priority-focused investment to ensure sustainable development for the present and future generations. Doing business as usual is unsustainable with high costs for individuals, families, communities, society, the economy and the planet. Governments can have a major impact on all factors influencing health and wellbeing, on the way people live and on their everyday choices. The interconnected nature of current challenges and possible solutions needs strong leadership, strategic and political commitment, and coherent action. It also requires new approaches and financing mechanisms building on cross-sector collaboration and…

Vaccination policies of immigrants in the EU/EEA Member States–the measles immunization example

The European Journal of Public Health
Volume 28, Issue 3, 1 June 2018
https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/issue/28/3

Migration and health
Vaccination policies of immigrants in the EU/EEA Member States–the measles immunization example
Mihai A Bica; Ralf Clemens
Abstract
Background
In 2015–16, the European Union/European Economic Area Member States (EU/EEA MSs) experienced an unprecedented volume and rate of migration, posing serious challenges to existing national immunization systems and strategies and raising the questions of where, when and who to vaccinate. We assessed existing strategies for vaccinating immigrant populations in the EU/EEA using measles as an example of the most important vaccine-preventable diseases.
Methods
In this cross-sectional study, conducted from March to May 2016, an electronic questionnaire was sent to the Heads of National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs) or equivalent policy-making bodies in each of the 31 EU/EEA Member States. Responses were entered into a structured database and validated by survey responders for final analysis.
Results
Validated responses from all 31 EU/EEA NITAGs or equivalents showed that there is no common measles immunization policy for European immigrants. Policies vary widely from no policy at all (9 of 31, 29%) to vaccination of all comers (2 of 31, 6%), or vaccination of selected cohorts based on vaccination history (17 of 31, 55%) or serum antibody analysis (2 of 31, 6%). Further, the operational responsibilities for immigrant vaccination and documentation methods are not unified within the EU/EEA region.
Conclusions
With some notable exceptions immunization policies to contain spread of infectious diseases through migration are either non-existent or vary widely between countries in the EU/EEA. With freedom of movement within the EU/EEA there ought to be harmonization and a common EU/EEA vaccination strategy to replace national policies for immigrant populations.

Analyzing the impacts of global trade and investment on non-communicable diseases and risk factors: a critical review of methodological approaches used in quantitative analyses

Globalization and Health
http://www.globalizationandhealth.com/
[Accessed 26 May 2018]

Research
24 May 2018
Analyzing the impacts of global trade and investment on non-communicable diseases and risk factors: a critical review of methodological approaches used in quantitative analyses
Authors: Krycia Cowling, Anne Marie Thow and Keshia Pollack Porter

Translating research into action: an international study of the role of research funders

Health Research Policy and Systems
http://www.health-policy-systems.com/content
[Accessed 26 May 2018]

Research
24 May 2018
Translating research into action: an international study of the role of research funders
Authors: Robert K. D. McLean, Ian D. Graham, Jacqueline M. Tetroe and Jimmy A. Volmink
Abstract
Background
It is widely accepted that research can lead to improved health outcomes. However, translating research into meaningful impacts in peoples’ lives requires actions that stretch well beyond those traditionally associated with knowledge creation. The research reported in this manuscript provides an international review of health research funders’ efforts to encourage this process of research uptake, application and scaling, often referred to as knowledge translation.
Methods
We conducted web-site review, document review and key informant interviews to investigate knowledge translation at 26 research funding agencies. The sample comprises the regions of Australia, Europe and North America, and a diverse range of funder types, including biomedical, clinical, multi-health domain, philanthropic, public and private organisations. The data builds on a 2008 study by the authors with the same international sample, which permitted longitudinal trend analysis.
Results
Knowledge translation is an objective of growing significance for funders across each region studied. However, there is no clear international consensus or standard on how funders might support knowledge translation. We found that approaches and mechanisms vary across region and funder type. Strategically tailored funding opportunities (grants) are the most prevalent modality of support. The most common funder-driven strategy for knowledge translation within these grants is the linking of researchers to research users. Funders could not to provide empirical evidence to support the majority of the knowledge translation activities they encourage or undertake.
Conclusions
Knowledge translation at a research funder relies on context. Accordingly, we suggest that the diversity of approaches uncovered in our research is fitting. We argue that evaluation of funding agency efforts to promote and/or support knowledge translation should be prioritised and actioned. It is paradoxical that funders’ efforts to get evidence into practice are not themselves evidence based.

Humanitarian response in urban areas

Humanitarian Exchange Magazine
Number 71  March 2018
https://odihpn.org/magazine/humanitarian-response-urban-areas/

Humanitarian response in urban areas
Humanitarian crises are increasingly affecting urban areas either directly, through civil conflict, hazards such as flooding or earthquakes, urban violence or outbreaks of disease, or indirectly, through hosting people fleeing these threats. The humanitarian sector has been slow to understand how the challenges and opportunities of working in urban spaces necessitate changes in how they operate. For agencies used to working in rural contexts, the dynamism of the city, with its reliance on markets, complex systems and intricate logistics, can be a daunting challenge. Huge, diverse and mobile populations complicate needs assessments, and close coordination with other, often unfamiliar, actors is necessary.

[Reviewed earlier]