Reports/Research/Analysis/Commentary/Conferences/Meetings/Book Watch/Tenders

Reports/Research/Analysis/Commentary/Conferences/Meetings/Book Watch/Tenders

Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review has expanded its coverage of new reports, books, research and analysis published independent of the journal channel covered in Journal Watch below. Our interests span immunization and vaccines, as well as global public health, health governance, and associated themes. If you would like to suggest content to be included in this service, please contact David Curry at: david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org

Plotkin’s Vaccines. Edition No. 7
Authors: Stanley Plotkin, Walter Orenstein, Paul Offit
June 2017 :: 1504 Pages
Elsevier Health Science
eBook ISBN: 9780323393027
eBook ISBN: 9780323393010
Hardcover ISBN: 9780323357616
Description
From the development of each vaccine to its use in reducing disease, Plotkin’s Vaccines, 7th Edition, provides the expert information you need to provide optimal care to your patients. This award-winning text offers a complete understanding of each disease, as well as the latest knowledge of both existing vaccines and those currently in research and development. Described by Bill Gates as “an indispensable guide to the enhancement of the well-being of our world,” Plotkin’s Vaccines is a must-have reference for current, authoritative information in this fast-moving field.
Key Features
:: Includes complete information for each disease, including clinical characteristics, microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment, epidemiology, and public health and regulatory issues – plus complete information for each vaccine, including its stability, immunogenicity, efficacy, duration of immunity, adverse events, indications, contraindications, precautions, administration with other vaccines, and disease-control strategies.
:: Analyzes the cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness of different vaccine options.

Journal Watch

Journal Watch

   Vaccines and Global Health: The Week in Review continues its weekly scanning of key peer-reviewed journals to identify and cite articles, commentary and editorials, books reviews and other content supporting our focus on vaccine ethics and policy. Journal Watch is not intended to be exhaustive, but indicative of themes and issues the Center is actively tracking. We selectively provide full text of some editorial and comment articles that are specifically relevant to our work. Successful access to some of the links provided may require subscription or other access arrangement unique to the publisher.

If you would like to suggest other journal titles to include in this service, please contact David Curry at: david.r.curry@centerforvaccineethicsandpolicy.org

American Journal of Infection Control June 01, 2017 Volume 45, Issue 6, p583-702, e53-e68

American Journal of Infection Control
June 01, 2017 Volume 45, Issue 6, p583-702, e53-e68
http://www.ajicjournal.org/current

Major Articles
Evaluation of low immunization coverage among the Amish population in rural Ohio
Christine Kettunen, John Nemecek, Olivia Wenger
p630–634
Published online: March 13, 2017

Stepwise intervention including 1-on-1 counseling is highly effective in increasing influenza vaccination among health care workers
Younghee Jung, Mihye Kwon, Jeongmi Song
p635–641
Published online: January 4, 2017

Global Perspective Article
Infection prevention and control and the refugee population: Experiences from the University of Louisville Global Health Center
Ruth M. Carrico, Linda Goss, Timothy L. Wiemken, Rahel S. Bosson, Paula Peyrani, William A. Mattingly, Allison Pauly, Rebecca A. Ford, Stanley Kotey, Julio A. Ramirez
p673–676
Published online: April 18, 2017
Abstract
Background
During 2016, approximately 140,000 individuals entered the United States as part of the federal government refugee resettlement program and established themselves in communities in virtually every state. No national database regarding refugee health currently exists; therefore, little is known about existing infectious diseases, conditions, and cultural practices that impact successful acculturation. The objective of this report is to identify what is currently known about refugees and circumstances important to infection prevention and control with respect to their roles as new community members, employees, and consumers of health care.
Methods
Using data from the University of Louisville Global Health Center’s Newly Arriving Refugee Surveillance System, health issues affecting refugees from the perspective of a community member, an employee, and a patient were explored.
Results
Lack of immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases is the most widespread issue impacting almost every adult, adolescent, and child refugee resettled in Kentucky. Health issues of concern from an infection prevention and control perspective include latent tuberculosis infection, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and parasites. Other health conditions that may also be important include anemia, obesity, oral health, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
Conclusions
Refugee resettlement provides motivation for collaborative work among those responsible for infection prevention and control in all settings, their public health partners, and those responsible for and interested in community workforce concerns.

Comprehensive taxonomy and worldwide trends in pharmaceutical policies in relation to country income status

BMC Health Services Research
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmchealthservres/content
(Accessed 27 May 2017)

Research article
Comprehensive taxonomy and worldwide trends in pharmaceutical policies in relation to country income status
Maniadakis, G. Kourlaba, J. Shen and A. Holtorf
BMC Health Services Research 2017 17:371
Published on: 25 May 2017
Abstract
Background
Rapidly evolving socioeconomic and technological trends make it challenging to improve access, effectiveness and efficiency in the use of pharmaceuticals. This paper identifies and systematically classifies the prevailing pharmaceutical policies worldwide in relation to a country’s income status.
Methods
A literature search was undertaken to identify and taxonomize prevailing policies worldwide. Countries that apply those policies and those that do not were then grouped by income status.
Results
Pharmaceutical policies are linked to a country’s socioeconomics. Developed countries have universal coverage and control pharmaceuticals with external and internal price referencing systems, and indirect price–cost controls; they carry out health technology assessments and demand utilization controls. Price-volume and risk-sharing agreements are also evolving. Developing countries are underperforming in terms of coverage and they rely mostly on restrictive state controls to regulate prices and expenditure.
Conclusions
There are significant disparities worldwide in the access to pharmaceuticals, their use, and the reimbursement of costs. The challenge in high-income countries is to maintain access to care whilst dealing with trends in technology and aging. Essential drugs should be available to all; however, many low- and middle-income countries still provide most of their population with only poor access to medicines. As economies grow, there should be greater investment in pharmaceutical care, looking to the policies of high-income countries to increase efficiency. Pharmaceutical companies could also develop special access schemes with low prices to facilitate coverage in low-income countries.

An assessment of the geographical risks of wild and vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks in Africa and Asia

BMC Infectious Diseases
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcinfectdis/content
(Accessed 27 May 2017)

Research article
An assessment of the geographical risks of wild and vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks in Africa and Asia
Kathleen M. O’Reilly, Christine Lamoureux, Natalie A. Molodecky, Hil Lyons, Nicholas C. Grassly and Graham Tallis
BMC Infectious Diseases 2017 17:367
Published on: 26 May 2017
Abstract
Background
The international spread of wild poliomyelitis outbreaks continues to threaten eradication of poliomyelitis and in 2014 a public health emergency of international concern was declared. Here we describe a risk scoring system that has been used to assess country-level risks of wild poliomyelitis outbreaks, to inform prioritisation of mass vaccination planning, and describe the change in risk from 2014 to 2016. The methods were also used to assess the risk of emergence of vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks.
Methods
Potential explanatory variables were tested against the reported outbreaks of wild poliomyelitis since 2003 using multivariable regression analysis. The regression analysis was translated to a risk score and used to classify countries as Low, Medium, Medium High and High risk, based on the predictive ability of the score.
Results
Indicators of population immunity, population displacement and diarrhoeal disease were associated with an increased risk of both wild and vaccine-derived outbreaks. High migration from countries with wild cases was associated with wild outbreaks. High birth numbers were associated with an increased risk of vaccine-derived outbreaks.
Conclusions
Use of the scoring system is a transparent and rapid approach to assess country risk of wild and vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks. Since 2008 there has been a steep reduction in the number of wild poliomyelitis outbreaks and the reduction in countries classified as High and Medium High risk has reflected this. The risk of vaccine-derived poliomyelitis outbreaks has varied geographically. These findings highlight that many countries remain susceptible to poliomyelitis outbreaks and maintenance or improvement in routine immunisation is vital.

Staff’s normative attitudes towards coercion: the role of moral doubt and professional context—a cross-sectional survey study

BMC Medical Ethics
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcmedethics/content
(Accessed 27 May 2017)

Research article
Staff’s normative attitudes towards coercion: the role of moral doubt and professional context—a cross-sectional survey study
The use of coercion is morally problematic and requires an ongoing critical reflection. We wondered if not knowing or being uncertain whether coercion is morally right or justified (i.e. experiencing moral dou…
Bert Molewijk, Almar Kok, Tonje Husum, Reidar Pedersen and Olaf Aasland
BMC Medical Ethics 2017 18:37
Published on: 25 May 2017
Abstract
Background
The use of coercion is morally problematic and requires an ongoing critical reflection. We wondered if not knowing or being uncertain whether coercion is morally right or justified (i.e. experiencing moral doubt) is related to professionals’ normative attitudes regarding the use of coercion.
Methods
This paper describes an explorative statistical analysis based on a cross-sectional survey across seven wards in three Norwegian mental health care institutions.
Results
Descriptive analyses showed that in general the 379 respondents a) were not so sure whether coercion should be seen as offending, b) agreed with the viewpoint that coercion is needed for care and security, and c) slightly disagreed that coercion could be seen as treatment. Staff did not report high rates of moral doubt related to the use of coercion, although most of them agreed there will never be a single answer to the question ‘What is the right thing to do?’.
Bivariate analyses showed that the more they experienced general moral doubt and relative doubt, the more one thought that coercion is offending. Especially psychologists were critical towards coercion. We found significant differences among ward types. Respondents with decisional responsibility for coercion and leadership responsibility saw coercion less as treatment. Frequent experience with coercion was related to seeing coercion more as care and security.
Conclusions
This study showed that experiencing moral doubt is related to some one’s normative attitude towards coercion. Future research could investigate whether moral case deliberation increases professionals’ experience of moral doubt and whether this will evoke more critical thinking and increase staff’s curiosity for alternatives to coercion.

Written versus verbal consent: a qualitative study of stakeholder views of consent procedures used at the time of recruitment into a peripartum trial conducted in an emergency setting

BMC Medical Ethics
http://www.biomedcentral.com/bmcmedethics/content
(Accessed 27 May 2017)

Research Article
Written versus verbal consent: a qualitative study of stakeholder views of consent procedures used at the time of recruitment into a peripartum trial conducted in an emergency setting
Lawton, N. Hallowell, C. Snowdon, J. E. Norman, K. Carruthers and F. C. Denison
BMC Medical Ethics 2017 18:36
Published on: 24 May 2017
Abstract
Background
Obtaining prospective written consent from women to participate in trials when they are experiencing an obstetric emergency is challenging. Alternative consent pathways, such as gaining verbal consent at enrolment followed, later, by obtaining written consent, have been advocated by some clinicians and bioethicists but have received little empirical attention. We explored women’s and staff views about the consent procedures used during the internal pilot of a trial (GOT-IT), where the protocol permitted staff to gain verbal consent at recruitment.
Methods
Interviews with staff (n = 27) and participating women (n = 22). Data were analysed thematically and interviews were cross-compared to identify differences and similarities in participants’ views about the consent procedures used.
Results
Women and some staff highlighted benefits to obtaining verbal consent at trial enrolment, including expediting recruitment and reducing the burden on those left exhausted by their births. However, most staff with direct responsibility for taking consent expressed extreme reluctance to proceed with enrolment until they had obtained written consent, despite being comfortable using verbal procedures in their clinical practice. To account for this resistance, staff drew a strong distinction between research and clinical care and suggested that a higher level of consent was needed when recruiting into trials. In doing so, staff emphasised the need to engage women in reflexive decision-making and highlighted the role that completing the consent form could play in enabling and evidencing this process. While most staff cited their ethical responsibilities to women, they also voiced concerns that the absence of a signed consent form at recruitment could expose them to greater risk of litigation were an individual to experience a complication during the trial. Inexperience of recruiting into peripartum trials and limited availability of staff trained to take consent also reinforced preferences for obtaining written consent at recruitment.
Conclusions
While alternative consent pathways have an important role to play in advancing emergency medicine research, and may be appreciated by potential recruits, they may give rise to unintended ethical and logistical challenges for staff. Staff would benefit from training and support to increase their confidence and willingness to recruit into trials using alternative consent pathways.